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KILKELLY / KILLIKELLY

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It is not disputed that this name is Mac Giolla Cheallaigh in Irish. What is in some doubt is the precise significance of the term "giolla" in this case. Ireland was one of the earliest countries to evolve a system of hereditary surnames. They came into being fairly generally in the eleventh century, though some were formed as early as before the year 1000. Brian Boru, high king of Ireland, who died at the Battle of Clontarf in 1014, is often erroneously credited with decreeing that the use of surnames should become a requirement among his subjects. In fact the system developed spontaneously in Ireland, as it did elsewhere, as a result of the need for personal identification in an increasing population. The vast majority of surnames in Ireland were formed by prefixing a personal name with either "Mac" or "Ó" meaning "son of" or "grandson (more loosely descendant) of". In a significant number of Irish surnames one sees the addition of the term "giolla" which means "follower of", "devotee of" or "servant of". This prefix has given rise to a large number of familiar names start with Gil... or Kil... For example, Gilmore is from Mac Giolla Mhuire (devotee of Mary), Kilbride from Mac Giolla Brighde (devotee of St. Bridget), Gildea or Kildea from Mac Giolla Dhe (servant of God), Gilleran from Mac Giolla Eanain (Eanain's servant) and, of course, Kilkelly and Killikelly.

The conventional wisdom is that Mac Giolla Cheallaigh is taken from "son of the follower of (Saint) Ceallach". This is accepted by O'Donovan, O'Hart, Woulfe and MacLysaght, all Irish family historians of note, without question. However, it is possible that the name means "son of the servant of Kelly".

O'Kelly of Uí Maine was, and is, outstanding among all the septs of the name. The first bearer of the name among this sept was Ceallach, son of Finnachta, a chief of the Hy Many people in about 874. Ceallach means war or contention. These O'Kellys were for centuries one of the most powerful Connacht families. They ruled over 80,000 acres of Hy Many, an area named for a fourth century invader from Ulster known as Maine Mór. Hy Many country, counties Galway and Roscommon, was once known as "O'Kelly's Country". Their chieftain in 1014, Tadgh Mór O'Ceallaigh, was killed at the battle of Clontarf when Brian Boru defeated the Vikings.

The personal name Giollaceallach, first appears around the year 1000, the father of Congalach O'Clery (the progenitor of both the O'Clerys and the Kilkellys) being so called. It is entirely possible that this Giollaceallach was indeed, literally, a servant or follower of the chiefs of O'Kelly, in whose territory they lived. This derivation of the name would explain why the Kilkelly coat of arms is based upon the arms of O'Kelly.

As is usual with Irish names beginning with Mac Giolla the Mac is seldom retained in the modern anglicised form when, as often happens in Connacht, the Gil has become Kil. The family is of noble origin being, like the O'Clerys and the O'Heynes, descended from the famous King Guaire Aidhne, "the Hospitable". Their territory was in the Clanrickarde country at the base of Galway Bay, their principal seat being Cloghballymore, called Clogh in the Composition Book of Connacht.

They are described as ollamhs (judges) of O'Flaherty in history and poetry, having as their stipend certain lands near the modern town of Headford, Co. Galway. Their pedigree is discussed by John O'Donovan in his edition of The Tribes and Customs of Hy Many. The name appears frequently in the sixteenth century Fiants and in various Connacht records of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

The most noteworthy member of the sept was Most Rev. Peter Killikelly, O.S.D., Bishop of Kilfenora and Kilmacduagh from 1744 to 1783. This form of the name is now very rare.

It may be observed that Kilkelly has suffered from the regrettable tendency for comparatively uncommon surnames to be absorbed by more numerous ones somewhat similar in sound: in this case Kilkelly has sometimes become Kelly, notably around Oughterard.

M. Shaughnessy writes to me as follows ...

"The Kilkelly family origin has no connection with the O Kellys of Ui Maine. They did not reside in the territory of Ui Maine. The territory the Kilkellys resided in was known as Cinel Guaire, which was made up of roughly the parishes of Killeenavarra, Drumacoo and Kilcolgan. This territory was part of Ui Fiachrach Aidhne an area coextensive with the Diocese of Kilmacduagh. Cinel Guaire was also the name of the subgroup of the Ui Fiachrach Aidhne to which the Kilkellys belonged, along with the O Heynes and O Clearys. Later on Cinel Guaire was applied to the Kilkelly territory. Ceallach was a saint of the Ui Fiachrach. In Ui Fiachrach Aidhne the parish of Isertkelly is named after him. Giolla Ceallach was probably named after this Saint."

None of which explains why the Killikelly family adopted arms that are obviously based on those of O'Kelly.

Heraldry

There is just one record of a Kilkelly coat of arms. Killikelly or Kilkelly (Allowed by Hawkins, Ulster King of Arms, 1772, to Brian or Bernard Paul Killikelly, of Bilbil in Spain; fourth in descent from Mortogh Killikelly of Castle Lydican, county Galway, Ireland) Arms: Vert two lions rampant combatant, supporting a tower triple towered Or, all between three crescents Argent. Crest: Out of a ducal coroent Or, an arm in armour embowed, the hand grasping a spear all proper. Motto: None recorded. Note the the two lions supporting a tower is typical of the O'Kelly coats of arms.

Supposed genealogy of Kilkelly

36. Milesius of Spain married Scota, daughter of Pharaoh Nectonibus of Egypt and sister in law of King Solomon. She was killed in Ireland fighting with her sons against the Tuatha de Danann. From his name we get the term "Milesians" which was often used to describe the Celts in Ireland. However, his real name was Gallamh. Milesius being more of a nickname, meaning warrior. From Scota we get the terms Scotus and Scotia, early Latin terms for "Irishmen" and "Ireland" (which later became Hibernia). When the Romans looked north across the border from Britain, they observed a land mainly inhabited by the Irish and so it got its modern name - Scotland. It is said that seven sons of Milesius set out to conquer Ireland, but only two survived the conflict.

37. Heremon: his son. He and his eldest brother Heber were, jointly, the first Milesian or Celtic Monarchs of Ireland; they began to reign, A.M. 3,500, or, Before Christ, 1699. After Heber was slain, B.C. 1698, Heremon reigned singly for fourteen years; during which time a certain colony called by the Irish Cruithneaigh, in English "Cruthneans" or Picts, arrived in Ireland and requested Heremon to assign them a part of the country to settle in, which he refused; but, giving them as wives the widows of the Tuatha-de-Danans, slain in battle, he sent them with a strong party of his own forces to conquer the country then called "Alba," but now Scotland; conditionally, that they and their posterity should be tributary to the Monarchs of Ireland. Heremon died, B.C. 1683, and was succeeded by three of his four sons, named Muimne, Luigne, and Laighean, who reigned jointly for three years, and were slain by their Heberian successors.

38. Irial Faidh ("faidh": Irish, a prophet): his son; was the 10th Monarch of Ireland; d. B.C. 1670. This was a very learned King; could foretell things to come; and caused much of the country to be cleared of the ancient forests. He likewise built seven royal palaces, viz., Rath Ciombaoith, Rath Coincheada, Rath Mothuig, Rath Buirioch, Rath Luachat, Rath Croicne, and Rath Boachoill. He won four remarkable battles over his enemies: - Ard Inmath, at Teabtha, where Stirne, the son of Dubh, son of Fomhar, was slain; the second battle was at Teanmhuighe, against the Fomhoraice, where Eichtghe, their leader, was slain; the third was the battle of Loch Muighe, where Lugrot, the son of Moghfeibhis, was slain; and the fourth was the battle of Cuill Martho, where the four sons of Heber were defeated. Irial died in the second year after this battle, having reigned 10 years, and was buried at Magh Muagh.

39. Eithrial: his son; was the 11th Monarch; reigned 20 years; and was slain by Conmaol, the son of Heber Fionn, at the battle of Soirrean, in Leinster, B.C. 1650.

This also was a learned King, he wrote with his own hand the History of the Gaels (or Gadelians); in his reign seven large woods were cleared and much advance made in the practice of agriculture.

40. Foll-Aich: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by Conmaol, the slayer of his father, who usurped his place.

41. Tigernmas : his son; was the 13th Monarch, and reigned 77 years; according to Keating, he reigned but 50 years; he fought twenty-seven battles with the followers of the family of Heber Fionn, all which he gained. In his reign gold was mined near the Liffey, and skilfully worked by Inchadhan. This King also made a law that each grade of society should be known by the number of colours in its wearing apparel: - the clothes of a slave should be of one colour; those of a soldier of two; the dress of a commanding officer to be of three colours; a gentleman's dress, who kept a table for the free entertainment of strangers, to be of four colours; five colours to be allowed to the nobility (the chiefs); and the King, Queen, and Royal Family, as well as the Druids, historians, and other learned men to wear six colours.

This King died, B.C. 1543, on the Eve of 1st of November, with two-thirds of the people of Ireland, at Magh Sleaght (or Field of Adoration), in the county of Leitrim, as he was adoring the Sun-God, Crom Cruach (a quo Macroom).

Historians say this Monarch was the first who introduced image worship in Ireland.

42. Enboath: his son. It was in this prince's lifetime that the Kingdom was divided in two parts by a line drawn from Drogheda to Limerick.

43. Smiomghall: his son; in his lifetime the Picts in Scotland were forced to abide by their oath, and pay homage to the Irish Monarch; seven large woods were also cut down.

44. Fiacha Labhrainn: his son; was the 18th Monarch; reigned 24 years; slew Eochaidh Faobharglas, of the line of Heber, at the battle of Carman. During his reign all the inhabitants of Scotland were brought in subjection to the Irish Monarchy, and the conquest was secured by his son the 20th Monarch. Fiacha at length (B.C. 1448) fell in the battle of Bealgadain, by the hands of Eochaidh Mumho, the son of Moefeibhis, of the race of Heber Fionn.

45. Aongus Olmucach: his son; was the 20th Monarch; in his reign the Picts again refused to pay the tribute imposed on them 250 years before, by Heremon, but this Monarch went with a strong army into Alba and in thirty pitched battles overcame them and forced them to pay the required tribute.

Aongus was at length slain by Eana, in the battle of Carman, B.C. 1409.

46. Main: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by Eadna, of the line of Heber Fionn. In his time silver shields were given as rewards for bravery to the Irish militia.

47. Rotheachtach : his son; was the 22nd Monarch; slain, B.C. 1357, by Sedne (or Seadhna), of the Line of Ir.

48. Dein: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by his father's slayer, and his son. In his time gentlemen and noblemen first wore gold chains round their necks, as a sign of their birth; and golden helmets were given to brave soldiers,

49. Siorna "Saoghalach" (long-oevus): his son; was the 34th Monarch; he obtained the name "Saoghalach" on account of his extraordinary long life; slain, B.C 1030, at Aillin, by Rotheachta, of the line of Heber Fionn, who usurped the Monarchy, thereby excluding from the throne -

50. Olioll Aolcheoin: son of Siorna Saoghalach.

51. Gialchadh: his son; was the 37th Monarch; killed by Art Imleach, of the Line of Heber Fionn, at Moighe Muadh, B.C. 1013.

52. Nuadhas Fionnfail: his son; was the 39th Monarch; slain by Breasrioghacta, his successor, B.C. 961.

53. Aedan Glas: his son. In his time the coast was infested with pirates; and there occurred a dreadful plague (Apthach) which swept away most of the inhabitants.

54. Simeon Breac: his son; was the 44th Monarch; he inhumanly caused his predecessor to be torn asunder; but, after a reign of six years, he met with a like death, by order of Duach Fionn, son to the murdered King, B.C. 903.

55. Muredach Bolgach: his son; was the 46th Monarch; killed by Eadhna Dearg, B.C. 892; he had two sons - Duach Teamhrach, and Fiacha.

56. Fiacha Tolgrach: son of Muredach; was the 55th Monarch. His brother Duach had two sons, Eochaidh Framhuine and Conang Beag-eaglach, who were the 51st and 53rd Monarchs of Ireland.

Fiacha's life was ended by the sword of Oilioll Fionn, of the Line of Heber Fionn, B.C. 795.

57. Duach Ladhrach: his son; was the 59th Monarch; killed by Lughaidh Laighe, son of Oilioll Fionn, B.C. 737.

58. Eochaidh Buadhach: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by his father's slayer. In his time the kingdom was twice visited with a plague.

59. Ugaine Mór : his son. This Ugaine (or Hugony) the Great was the 66th Monarch of Ireland. Was called Mór on account of his extensive dominions, - being sovereign of all the Islands of Western Europe. Was married to Cæsair, dau. to the King of France, and by her had issue - twenty-two sons and three daughters. In order to prevent these children encroaching on each other he divided the Kingdom into twenty-five portions, allotting to each his (or her) distinct inheritance. By means of this division the taxes of the country were collected during the succeeding 300 years. All the sons died without issue except two, viz: - Laeghaire Lorc, ancestor of all the Leinster Heremonians; and Cobthach Caolbhreagh, from whom the Heremonians of Leath Cuinn, viz., Meath, Ulster, and Conacht derive their pedigree.

Ugaine was at length, B.C. 593, slain by Badhbhchadh, who failed to secure the fruits of his murder - the Irish Throne, as he was executed by order of Laeghaire Lorc, the murdered Monarch's son, who became the 68th Monarch.

60. Colethach Caol-bhreagh: son of Ugaine Mór; was the 69th Monarch; it is said, that, to secure the Throne, he assassinated his brother Laeghaire; after a long reign he was at length slain by Maion, his nephew, B.C. 541.

61. Melg Molbhthach: his son; was the 71st Monarch; was slain by Modhchorb, son of Cobhthach Caomh, of the Line of Heber Fionn, B.C. 541.

62. Iaran Gleofathach: his son; was the 74th Monarch; was a King of great justice and wisdom very well learned and possessed of many accomplishments; slain by Fear-Chorb, son of Modh-Chorb, B.C. 473.

63. Conla Caomh: his son; was the 74th Monarch of Ireland; died a natural death, B.C. 442.

64. Olioll Cas-fiachlach: his son; was the 77th Monarch; slain by his successor, Adhamhar Foltchaion, B.C. 417.

65. Eochaidh Alt-Leathan: his son; was the 79th Monarch; slain by Feargus Fortamhail, his successor, B.C. 395.

66. Aongus (or Æneas) Tuirmeach-Teamrach: his son; was the 81st Monarch; his son, Fiacha Firmara (so called from being exposed in a small boat on the sea) was ancestor of the Kings of Dalriada and Argyle in Scotland. This Aongus was slain at Tara (Teamhrach), B.C. 324.

67. Enna Aigneach: the legitimate son of Aongus; was the 84th Monarch; was of a very bountiful disposition, and exceedingly munificent in his donations. This King lost his life by the hands of Criomthan Cosgrach, B.C. 292.

68. Assaman Eamhna: his son; was excluded from the Throne by his father's murderer.

69. Roighen Ruadh: his son; in his time most of the cattle in Ireland died of murrain.

70. Fionnlogh: his son.

71. Fionn: his son; m. Benia, dau. of Criomthan; had two sons.

72. Eochaidh Feidlioch: his son; was the 93rd Monarch; m Clothfionn, dau. of Eochaidh Uchtleathan, who was a very virtuous lady. By him she had three children at a birth - Breas, Nar, and Lothar (the Fineamhas), who were slain at the battle of Dromchriadh; after their death, a melancholy settled on the Monarch, hence his name "Feidhlioch."

This Monarch caused the division of the Kingdom by Ugaine Mór into twenty-five parts, to cease; and ordered that the ancient Firvolgian division into Provinces should be resumed, viz., Two Munsters, Leinster, Conacht, and Ulster.

He also divided the government of these Provinces amongst his favourite courtiers: - Conacht he divided into three parts between Fiodhach, Eochaidh Allat, and Tinne, son of Conragh, son of Ruadhri Mór, No 62 on the "Line of Ir;" Ulster (Uladh) he gave to Feargus, the son of Leighe; Leinster he gave to Ros, the son of Feargus Fairge; and the two Munsters he gave to Tighernach Teadhbheamach and Deagbadah.

After this division of the Kingdom, Eochaidh proceeded to erect a Royal Palace in Conacht; this he built on Tinne's government in a place called Druin-na-n Druagh, now Craughan (from Craughan Crodhearg, Maedhbh's mother, to whom she gave the palace), but previously, Rath Eochaidh. About the same time he bestowed his daughter the Princess Maedhbh on Tinne, whom he constituted King of Conacht; Maedhbh being hereditary Queen of that Province.

After many years reign Tinne was slain by Maceacht (or Monaire) at Tara. After ten years' undivided reign, Queen Maedhbh married Oilioll Mór, son of Ros Ruadh, of Leinster, to whom she bore the seven Maine; Oilioll Mór was at length slain by Conall Cearnach, who was soon after killed by the people of Conacht. Maedhbh was at length slain by Ferbhuidhe, the son of Conor MacNeasa (Neasa was his mother); but in reality this Conor was the son of Fachtna Fathach, son of Cas, son of Ruadhri Mór, of the Line of Ir.

This Monarch, Eochaidh, died at Tara, B.C. 130.

73. Bress-Nar-Lothar: his son. In his time the Irish first dug graves beneath the surface to bury their dead; previously they laid the body on the surface and heaped stones over it. He had also been named Fineamhnas.

74. Lughaidh Sriabh-n Dearg: his son; was the 98th Monarch; he entered into an alliance with the King of Denmark, whose daughter, Dearborguill, he obtained as his wife; he killed himself by falling on his sword in the eighth year Before CHRIST.

75. Crimthann-Niadh-Nar : his son; who was the 100th Monarch of Ireland, and styled "The Heroic." It was in this Monarch's reign that our Lord and Saviour JESUS CHRIST was born.

Crimthann's death was occasioned by a fall from his horse, B.C. 9. Was married to Nar-Tath-Chaoch, dau. of Laoch, son of Daire, who lived in the land of the Picts (Scotland).

76. Feredach Fionn-Feachtnach: his son; was the 102nd Monarch. The epithet "feachtnach" was applied to this Monarch because of his truth and sincerity. In his reign lived Moran, the son of Maom, a celebrated Brehon, or Chief Justice of the Kingdom; it is said that he was the first who wore the wonderful collar called Iodhain Morain; this collar possessed a wonderful property: - if the judge who wore it attempted to pass a false judgment it would immediately contract, so as nearly to stop his breathing; but if he reversed such false sentence the collar would at once enlarge itself, and hang loose around his neck. This collar was also caused to be worn by those who acted as witnesses, so as to test the accuracy of their evidence. This Monarch, Feredach, died a natural death at the regal city at Tara, A.D. 36.

77. Fiacha Fionn Ola : his son; was the 104th Monarch; reigned 17 years, and was (A.D. 56) slain by Eiliomh MacConrach, of the Race of Ir, who succeeded him on the throne. This Fiacha was married to Eithne, daughter of the King of Alba; whither, being near her confinement at the death of her husband, she went, and was there delivered of a son, who was named Tuathal.

78. Tuathal Teachtmar: that son; was the 106th Monarch of Ireland. When Tuathal came of age, he got together his friends, and, with what aid his grandfather the king of Alba gave him, came into Ireland and fought and overcame his enemies in twenty-five battles in Ulster, twenty-five in Leinster, as many in Connaught, and thirty-five in Munster. And having thus restored the true royal blood and heirs to their respective provincial kingdoms, he thought fit to take, as he accordingly did with their consent, fron each of the four divisions or provinces Munster, Leinster, Connaught, and Ulster, a considerable tract of ground which was the next adjoining to Uisneach (where Tuathal had a palace): one east, another west, a third south, and a fourth on the north of it; and appointed all four (tracts of ground so taken from the four provinces) under the name of Midhe or "Meath" to belong for ever after to the Monarch's own peculiar demesne for the maintenance of his table; on each of which several portions he built a royal palace for himself and his heirs and successors; for every of which portions the Monarch ordained a certain chiefry or tribute to be yearly paid to the provincial Kings from whose provinces the said portions were taken, which may be seen at large in the Chronicles. It was this Monarch that imposed the great and insupportable fine (or "Eric") of 6,000 cows or beeves, as many fat muttons, (as many) hogs, 6,000 mantles, 6,000 ounces (or "Uinge") of silver, and 12,000 (others have it 6,000) cauldrons or pots of brass, to be paid every second year by the province of Leinster to the Monarchs of Ireland for ever, for the death of his only two daughters Fithir and Darina. (See Paper "Ancient Leinster Tributes," in the Appendix). This tribute was punctually taken and exacted, sometimes by fire and sword, during the reigns of forty Monarchs of Ireland upwards of six hundred years, until at last remitted by Finachta Fleadhach, the 153rd Monarch of Ireland, and the 26th Christian Monarch, at the request and earnest solicitation of St. Moling. At the end of thirty years' reign, the Monarch Tuathal was slain by his successor Mal, A.D. 106.

This Monarch erected Royal Palace at Tailtean; around the grave of Queen Tailte he caused the Fairs to be resumed on La Lughnasa (Lewy's Day), to which were brought all of the youth of both sexes of a suitable age to be married, at which Fair the marriage articles were agreed upon, and the ceremony performed.

Tuathal married Baine, the dau. of Sgaile Balbh, King of England.

79. Fedhlimidh (Felim) Rachtmar: his son; was so called as being a maker of excellent wholesome laws, among which he established with all firmness that of "Retaliation;" kept to it inviolably; and by that means preserved the people in peace, quiet, plenty, and security during his time. This Felim was the 108th Monarch; reigned nine years; and, after all his pomp and greatness, died of thirst, A.D. 119. He married Ughna, dau. of the King of Denmark.

80. Conn Ceadcathach (or Conn of the Hundred Battles ); his son; This Conn was so called from hundreds of battles by him fought and won: viz., sixty battles against Cahir Mór, King of Leinster and the 109th Monarch of Ireland, whom he slew and succeeded in the Monarchy; one hundred battles against the Ulsterians; and one hundred more in Munster against Owen Mór (or Mogha Nua-Dhad), their King, who, notwithstanding, forced the said Conn to an equal division of the Kingdom with him. He had two brothers - 1. Eochaidh Fionn-Fohart, 2. Fiacha Suidhe, who, to make way for themselves, murdered two of their brother's sons named Conla Ruadh and Crionna; but they were by the third son Art Eanfhear banished, first into Leinster, and then into Munster, where they lived near Cashel. They were seated at Deici Teamhrach (now the barony of Desee in Meath), whence they were expelled by the Monarch Cormac Ulfhada, son of Art; and, after various wanderings, they went to Munster where Oilioll Olum, who was married to Sadhbh, daughter of Conn of the Hundred Battles, gave them a large district of the present county of Waterford, a part of which is still called Na-Deiseacha, or the baronies of Desies. They were also given the country comprised in the present baronies of Clonmel, Upper-Third, and Middle-Third, in the co. Tipperary, which they held till the Anglo-Norman Invasion. From Eochaidh Fionn-Fohart decended O'Nowlan or Nolan of Fowerty (or Foharta), in Lease (or Leix), and Saint Bridget; and from Fiacha Suidhe are O'Dolan, O'Brick of Dunbrick, and O'Faelan of Dun Faelan, near Cashel. Conn of the Hundred Battles had also three daughters: 1. Sadhbh, who m. first, MacNiadh, after whose death she m. Oilioll Olum, King of Munster. (See No. 84 on the "Line of Heber"); 2. Maoin; and 3. Sarah (or Sarad), m. to Conan MacMogha Laine. - (See No. 81. infra).

Conn reigned 35 years; but was at length barbarously slain by Tiobraidhe Tireach, son of Mal, son of Rochruidhe, King of Ulster. This murder was committed in Tara, A.D. 157, when Conn chanced to be alone and unattended by his guards; the assassins were fifty ruffians, disguised as women, whom the King of Ulster employed for the purpose.

81. Art Eanfhear ("art:" Irish, a bear, a stone; noble, great, generous; hardness, cruelty. "Ean:" Irish, one; "fhear," "ar," the man; Gr. "Ar," The Man, or God of War): son of Conn of the Hundred Fights; a quo O'h-Airt, anglicised O'Hart. This Art, who was the 112th Monarch of Ireland, had three sisters - one of whom Sarad was the wife of Conaire Mac Mogha Laine, the 111th Monarch, by whom she had three sons called the "Three Cairbres," viz. - 1. Cairbre (alias Eochaidh) Riada - a quo "Dalriada," in Ireland, and in Scotland; 2. Cairbre Bascaon; 3. Cairbre Musc, who was the ancestor of O'Falvey, lords of Corcaguiney, etc. Sabina (or Sadhbh), another sister, was the wife of MacNiadh [nia], half King of Munster (of the Sept of Lughaidh, son of Ithe), by whom she had a son named Maccon; and by her second husband Olioll Olum she had nine sons, seven whereof were slain by their half brother Maccon, in the famous battle of Magh Mucroimhe [muccrove], in the county of Galway, where also the Monarch Art himself fell, siding with his brother-in-law Olioll Olum against the said Maccon, after a reign of thirty years, A.D. 195. This Art was married to Maedhbh, Leathdearg, the dau. of Conann Cualann; from this Queen, Rath Maedhbhe, near Tara, obtained its name.

82. Cormac Ulfhada: son of Art Eanfhear; m. Eithne, dau. of Dunlang, King of Leinster; had three elder brothers - 1. Artghen, 2. Boindia, 3. Bonnrigh. He had also six sons - 1. Cairbre Lifeachar, 2. Muireadach, 3. Moghruith, 4. Ceallach, 5. Daire, 6. Aongus Fionn: Nos. 4 and 5 left no issue. King Cormac Mac Art was the 115th Monarch of Ireland; and was called "Ulfhada," because of his long beard. He was the wisest, most learned, and best of any of the Milesian race before him, that ruled the Kingdom. He ordained several good laws; wrote several learned treatises, among which his treatise on "Kingly Government," directed to his son Carbry Liffechar, is extant and extraordinary. He was very magnificent in his housekeeping and attendants, having always one thousand one hundred and fifty persons in his daily retinue constantly attending at his Great Hall at Tara; which was three hundred feet long, thirty cubits high, and fifty cubits broad, with fourteen doors to it. His daily service of plate, flagons, drinking cups of gold, silver., and precious stone, at his table, ordinarily consisted of one hundred and fifty pieces, besides dishes, etc., which were all pure silver or gold. He ordained that ten choice persons should constantly attend him and his successors - Monarchs of Ireland, and never to be absent from him, viz. - 1. A nobleman to be his companion; 2. A judge to deliver and explain the laws of the country in the King's presence upon all occasions; 3. An antiquary or historiographer to declare and preserve the genealogies, acts, and occurrences of the nobility and gentry from time to time as occasion required; 4. A Druid or Magician to offer sacrifice, and presage good or bad omens, as his learning, skill, or knowledge would enable him; 5. A poet to praise or dispraise every one according to his good or bad actions; 6. A physician to administer physic to the king and queen, and to the rest of the (royal) family; 7. A musician to compose music, and sing pleasant sonnets in the King's presence when there-unto disposed; and 8, 9, and 10, three Stewards to govern the King's House in all things appertaining thereunto. This custom was observed by all the succeeding Monarchs down to Brian Boromha [Boru], the 175th Monarch of Ireland, and the 60th down from Cormac, without any alteration only that since they received the Christian Faith they changed the Druid or Magician for a Prelate of the Church.

What is besides delivered from antiquity of this great Monarch is, that (which among the truly wise is more valuable than any worldly magnificence or secular glory whatsoever) he was to all mankind very just, and so upright in his actions, judgments, and laws, that God revealed unto him the light of His Faith seven years before his death; and from thenceforward he refused his Druids to worship their idol-gods, and openly professed he would no more worship any but the true God of the Universe, the Immortal and Invisible King of Ages. Whereupon the Druids sought his destruction, which they soon after effected (God permitting it) by their adjurations and ministry of damned spirits choking him as he sat at dinner eating of salmon, some say by a bone of the fish sticking in his throat, A.D. 266, after he had reigned forty years. Of the six sons of Cormac Mac Art, no issue is recorded from any [of them], but from Cairbre-Lifeachar; he had also ten daughters, but there is no account of any of them only two - namely, Grace (or Grania), and Ailbh [alve], who were both successively the wives of the great champion and general of the Irish Militia, Fionn, the son of Cubhall [Coole]. The mother of Cormac MacArt was Eachtach, the dau. of Ulcheatagh.

Cormac was married to Eithne Ollamhdha, dau. of Dunlang, son of Eana Niadh; she was fostered by Buiciodh Brughach, in Leinster.

83. Cairbre-Lifeachar, the 117th Monarch of Ireland: son of King Cormac Mac Art; was so called from his having been nursed by the side of the Liffey, the river on which Dublin is built. His mother was Eithne, daughter of Dunlong, King of Leinster. He had three sons - 1. Eochaidh Dubhlen; 2. Eocho; and 3. Fiacha Srabhteine, who was the 120th Monarch of Ireland, and the ancestor of O'Neill, Princes of Tyrone. Fiacha Srabhteine was so called, from his having been fostered at Dunsrabhteine, in Connaught; of which province he was King, before his elevation to the Monarchy. After seventeen years' reign, the Monarch Cairbre Lifeachar was slain at the battle of Gabhra [Gaura], A.D. 284, by Simeon, the son of Ceirb, who came from the south of Leinster to this battle, fought by the Militia of Ireland, who were called the Fiana Erionn (or Fenians), and arising from a quarrel which happened between the; in which the Monarch, taking part with one side against the other, lost his life.

84. Fiacha Srabhteine, King of Conacht, and the 120th Monarch of Ireland: son of Cairbre-Liffechar; married Aoife, dau. of the King of Gall Gaodhal. This Fiacha, after 37 years' reign, was, in the battleof Dubhcomar, A.D. 322, slain by his nephews, the Three Collas, to make room for Colla Uais, who seized on, and kept, the Monarchy for four years. From those three Collas the "Clan Colla" were so called.

85. Muireadach Tireach: son of Fiacha Srabhteine; m. Muirion, dau. of Fiachadh, King of Ulster; and having, in A.D. 326, fought and defeated Colla Uais, and banished him and his two brothers into Scotland, regained his father's Throne, which he kept as the 122nd Monarch for 30 years.

86. Eochaidh Muigh-Meadhoin [Moyvone]: his son; was the 124th Monarch; and in the 8th year of his reign died a natural death at Tara, A.D. 365; leaving issue four sons, viz., by his first wife Mong Fionn: - I. Brian; II. Fiachra; III. Olioll; IV. Fergus. And, by his second wife, Carthan Cais Dubh (or Carinna), daughter of the Celtic King of Britain, - V. Niall Mór, commonly called "Niall of the Nine Hostages." Mong Fionn was dau. of Fiodhach, and sister of Crimthann, King of Munster, of the Heberian Sept, and successor of Eochaidh in the Monarchy. This Crimthann was poisoned by his sister Mong-Fionn, in hopes that Brian, her eldest son by Eochaidh, would succeed in the Monarchy. To avoid suspicion she herself drank of the same poisoned cup which she presented to her brother; but, notwithstanding that she lost her life by so doing, yet her expectations were not realised, for the said Brian and her other three sons by the said Eochaidh were laid aside (whether out of horror of the mother's inhumanity in poisoning her brother, or otherwise, is not known), and the youngest son of Eochaidh, by Carthan Cais Dubh, was preferred to the Monarchy. I. Brian, from him were descended the Kings, nobility and gentry of Conacht - Tirloch Mór O'Connor, the 121st, and Roderic O'Connor, the 183rd Monarch of Ireland. II. Fiachra's descendants gave their name to Tir-Fiachra ("Tireragh"), co. Sligo, and possessed also parts of co. Mayo. III. Olioll's descendants settled in Sligo - in Tir Oliolla (or Tirerill). This Fiachra had five sons: - 1. Earc Cuilbhuide; 2. Breasal; 3. Conaire; 4. Feredach (or Dathi); and 5. Amhalgaidh.

87. Fiachra Folt-leathan ("folt:" Irish, vein; "leathan," broad): the second son of Eochaidh Muigh-Meadhoin, the 124th Monarch of Ireland; a quo were called the territories in Connaught known as Tir Fiachra, or "Fiachra's Country," and a quo O'Fuiltleathan, anglicised Fulton. This Fiachra had two sons - 1. Amhailgadh, and 2. Dathi: the former was the second Christian King of Connaught, who died without issue; it was after him that the territory of Tir Amhailgaidh, now the barony of "Tyrawley," in the county Mayo, was so called.

88. Dathi: second son of Fiachra Folt-leathan; was the 127th Monarch. This Dathi (in imitation of the heroic actions of his uncle, the Monarch Niall of the Nine Hostages, and in prosecution of the conquest of France undertaken by the said uncle, but prevented by his death,) went with a great army into France; and, marching over the Alps, was there killed by a thunderbolt, which put an end to his conquest and life together, A.D. 428.

89. Eocha Breac: his son. This Eocha had three brothers - 1. Olioll Molt, the 129th Monarch of Ireland, who, leaving no issue, was slain in the battle of Ocha, A.D. 478; and 2. Fiachra Ealg, who was the ancestor of O'Dowd; 3. Amhailgadh, who was the ancestor of Forbes and MacFirbis.

90. Eoghan (or Owen): son of Eocha Breac. This Owen had a daughter named St. Faoileann, whose feast is on the 13th Sept.

91. Conall: his son; had a brother named Conn Berneach, who was the ancestor of Moghan.

92. Gobhneann: his son.

93. Cobthach: his son.

94. Columhan ("columhan:" Irish, a prop; Lat. "columna;" Welsh, "colovn;" Span. "coluna:" Gr. "kolona"): his son; was the 10th Christian King of Connaught, and the ancestor of Colman, of that province. Had a brother Aodh who was the ancestor of Cahill, of Connaught.

95. Guaire Aidhne: his son; the 12th Christian king; a quo O'Guaire,

("guaire:" Irish, rough hair); anglicised Gware and Gurry; had a brother named Hugh.

96. Fergall: son of Guaire Aidhneach [aidhne].

97. Toirbheartach: his son.

98. Cathmogh: his son.

99. Cumascach: his son.

100. Ceadach: his son.

101. Cleireach ("cleireach:" Irish, a clerk; Lat. "cleric-us"): his son; a quo O'Cleirigh.

102. Maolfabhal: his son; died A.D. 887.

103. Maolceardachd (called Flann): his son.

104. Comhailltan ("comhaill:" Irish, to perform a duty): his son; a quo O'Comhailltain, anglicised Coulton; died A.D. 976.

105. Giollaceallach: his son.

106. Congalach O'Clery: his son; first assumed this surname; died 1025.

107. Giolla na Naomh: son of Congalach O'Clery.

108. Flann: his son.

109. Conchobhar: his son.

110. Aodh: his son.

111. Giolla Ceallaigh: his son; a quo O Giolla Ceallaigh.

112. Giolla na Naomh: his son.