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Murray, Murry, Morrow, MacMurrough, etc.

Arms of McMurray of Ireland

Arms of MacMurrough, Royal family of Leinster

Arms of Dermot MacMurrough, King of Leinster

Arms of MacMurrough of Carlow and Wexford, a branch of Kavanagh

Arms of Morrogh of Cork

Arms of Morrogh of Limerick

A basic form of the Arms of Murray of Scotland

Arms of the Chief of the Clan Murray, Scotland. Other crests include a peacock's head supported by two arms and a Saracen or savage.

Arms of Murray of Castlemurray, County Donegal, Ireland

Another form of the Murray Arms as found in Ireland

A considerable proportion of the Murrays now living in Ireland are of Scottish extraction, particularly in Ulster, where they are more numerous than in the other provinces. George Murray of Wigtownshire in Scotland was one of the fifty Scottish undertakers of the Plantation of Ulster. He received 1500 acres in west county Donegal in 1610. John Murray, Earl of Annandale took over 100 acres near Donegal town, that had been the property of Sir Patrick McKee and another 1000 acres nearby belonging to James McCulloch. No doubt other Murrays were involved in the plantation and together account for many of the occurances of the surname in that part of Ireland today. I will deal with the Scottish Murrays further down this page, but first to the native Irish families of the name.

The old Irish surname Ó Muireadhaigh, formerly anglicised O'Murry is now almost always Murray. here were several septs so called, of which the only one of importance after the Anglo-Norman invasion was that of Ui Maine. The Chief of the Name as recorded in the "Composition Book of Connacht" (1585) was seated at Ballymurry, their territory being in the barony of Athlone (Co. Roscommon). In this area the name is often pronounced with the emphasis on the final syllable. These are mentioned about the same time by Carew, who also refers to O'Murrihie of Ballywiddan in the barony of Carbery, Co. Cork: this is a local variant of the name usually anglicised Murray. Donogh O'Murry, Archbishop of Tuam from 1458 to 1484, a member of this sept, was responsible for the establishment of that unique ecclesiastical jurisdiction, the Wardenship of Galway; and Bartholomew Murray (1695-1767), of Co. Clare, is memorable for his benefactions to the Irish College in Paris. In the nineteenth century there were two leading Irish architects called William Murray: the elder was nephew and associate of Francis Johnston (1761 - 1829) of Armagh, greatest of Irish-born architects. Sir Terence Aubrey Murray (1810-1873), who was born in Limerick, was a pioneer pastoralist in Australia and built at Canberra the house later converted into the official residence of the Governor-General. One of his sons Sir John Hubert Plunket Murray (1861-1940) was notable for his care of the natives during his long term of office as governor of New Guinea; the other, Professor Gilbert Murray (1866-1957), of Oxford University, was celebrated as a Greek scholar.

Nicholas Murray, D.D., a distinguished divine and author, was born at Ballinasloe, on the 25th December, 1802. He went to the United States in 1818, and was appointed to the printing house of Harper Brothers. Subsequently he studied theology and became pastor of a Presbyterian Church in Pennsylvania. In 1849 he was Moderator of the Presbyterian General Assembly. He was the author of numerous works on archaeology and social statistics, travel, and sermons. He died at Elizabethtown, New Jersey, on the 4th of February, 1861.

The "Composition Book of Connacht" also mentions MacMurry of Co. Leitrim, the Chief of the Name being of Loghmoyltagh in that county. The present day representatives of that sept, who mostly come from this area, use the name MacMorrow (in the Manorhamilton area this predominantly Leitrim name is now usually written MacMorry).

There is another Gaelic name which has been sometimes anglicised Murray, viz. Mac Giolla Mhuire, of the barony of Castlereagh in Co. Down: Murray is here an abbreviation of MacIlmurray; but the usual form of this in English is Gilmore.

The name MacMurrough is one of the most illustrious in Ireland and has also been made Morrow in modern times and is sometimes found as Murray. It is, of course, best known as that of the royal house of Leinster - not too happily in the case of Dermot MacMurrough (1110- 1171), King of Leinster, the abductor of Dervorgilla the wife of O'Rourke, Prince of Breffny: it was MacMurrough who sought help from Henry II and thus was the immediate cause of the Anglo-Norman invasion. His descendant Art MacMurrough (1357-1417), also King of Leinster, did much to remove the opprobrium consequently attaching to the name by his continuous and successful resistance to English aggression.

On this subject Webb writes: - "The transaction cannot have had much of the romance usually associated with the idea of an elopement. She was forty - four years of age, and did not leave her lord without carrying off her cattle and furniture. This was fifteen years before Dermot sought Anglo - Norman assistance; so that the invasion (of Ireland) can scarcely be attributable to the elopement ... Dearvorgal spent much of her later life in religious exercises, and part of her substance in endowing churches. She survived until 1193, when she died at Mellifont Abbey, county of Meath, which she had enriched with many presents. Although Dermot's Kingdom nominally passed into Earl Strongbow's family after his decease, much of it appears to have been soon again occupied by the MacMurroughs, by whom it was held in almost undisputed sway for several centuries."

Art MacMurrough was styled Kavanagh.

This important sept became divided into several sub-septs. The MacMurroughs (or Morrows) the Kavanaghs and the Kinsellas descend from Murchadha (Murrough), grandfather of King Dermot MacMurrough; and from his brothers came the O'Morchoes and MacDavie Mores. The latter, except in the case of the Chief of the Name, who is now styled O'Morchoe, all became Murphys and Davises respectively. They all belong to County Wexford and adjacent counties. The country south-east of Enniscorthy is still known locally as "The Murroughs" and the MacDavie More district near Arklow is colloquially called "The Macmores". The original surname is now rare, MacMurrough being seldom found to-day outside Co. Dublin. In Irish it is written Mac Murchadha, i.e. son of Murrough.

The ancient kings of Leinster had fortresses or royal residences at Dinnrigh, near the river Barrow, between Carlow and Leighlin; at Naas, in Kildare; and in after - times at the city of Ferns in Wexford, which was their capital; and also at Old Ross in Wexford; and at Ballymoon in Carlow. The MacMoroughs were inaugurated as kings of Leinster at a place called Cnoc - an - Bhogha, attended by O'Nolan, who was the King's Marshal, and Chief of Forth in Carlow; by O'Doran, Chief Brehon of Leinster; and by MacKeogh, his Chief Bard; and the MacMoroughs maintained their independence, and held the title of "Kings of Leinster," with large possessions in Wexford and Carlow down to the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The Hy-Cavanagh or O'Cavanaghs were chiefs of the ancient territory which now comprises the barony of Idrone East, in the county Carlow; and in modern times became the representatives of the MacMoroughs, Kings of Leinster.

As many, perhaps even the majority, of Irish Murrays are of Scottish ancestry, it would be remiss not to include information of this famous Scottish Clan.

Among the Flemings who have left a conspicuous mark in Scottish history one of the most distinguished was a certain Freskin. Sir Robert Douglas in his Scottish Peerage calls him "a gentleman of Flemish origin" who came into Scotland during the reign of David I., and obtained from that munificent sovereign the lands of Strathbrock in Linlithgowshire. Though the Flemish origins of Friskin are rarely challenged, there are historians whi state that he was in fact of Pictish origin, being a branch of the royal house of the "Mormaers of Moray". In any event, soon after the settlement of this individual the famous insurrection of the Moraymen broke out. This was in the year 1130, and Freskin by his skill and bravery is said to have contributed vitally to the reduction of the rebellion. In return, King David conferred upon him a large and fertile district in the lowlands of Moray. Forthwith the new owner built a strong castle at Duffus, where his descendants flourished for many generations. William, a chief of the family, who was Sheriff of Invernairn, and died about 1220, is believed to have been the first to assume the surname "de Moravia" or Moray. From him descended the Morays, Lords of Bothwell, the Morays of Abercairney, and Sir William de Moravia, ancestor of the Dukes of Atholl of the present day.
Friskin's grandson, William de Moravia, married the daughter and heiress of David de Olifard, and was the ancestor of the Morays of Bothwell and Abercairny. Another grandson was Hugo, First Lord of Sutherland and progenitor of Clan Sutherland
The Lords of Bothwell made a great name during the Wars of Succession and Independence. The sixth chief, Sir Andrew Moray of Bothwell, was the first to join the patriot Wallace when he raised his standard. When the other barons deserted the national cause he alone remained steadfast. Along with Wallace he acted as Governor of Scotland, and after the battle of Stirling Bridge, where he was grievously wounded, he signed along with Wallace the famous letter, still extant, to the free city of Lubeck, which declared the ports of Scotland open to foreign commerce. His son, another Sir Andrew, was not less distinguished for his support to the cause of King Robert the Bruce. He married Christian, a sister of that King, and after the overthrow of the Regent Earl of Mar at Duplin, was appointed Regent by the Scottish Parliament. He was a prisoner in England at the time of the battle of Halidon Hill, but obtained his freedom in time to march to the relief of his wife, who was bravely defending Kildrummy Castle, one of the four strongholds which alone in Scotland held out for David Bruce against Edward Baliol and Edward III. Curiously enough the besieger on that occasion was David Hastings, Earl of Atholl, a title which, in later days, was to become a distinction of the Morays. In the upshot Hastings was overthrown and slain at the battle of Kilblene on St. Andrew's Day, 1335. It was in the same campaign that Sir Andrew Moray, besieging Lochindorb, was almost surprised by the English, and reassured his men, first by insisting upon completion of the service of Mass which he was hearing, and then by delaying to mend a strap of his armour which had been broken, then led his force out of danger in good time through the wild passes of the Findhorn. On the death of Thomas Moray, of Bothwell, the estates of this branch passed to his daughter Joanna and her husband, Archibald the Grim, Lord of Galloway and third Earl of Douglas, the natural son of the Good Sir James of Douglas.
The Morays of Abercairney still own their ancestral estate in Strathearn. It was saved for them on one occasion by the stratagem of a retainer. Moray of Abercairney was preparing to join the rebellion of Prince Charles Edward, when, as he was drawing on his boots, his butler dashed a kettleful of boiling water about his legs, with the exclamation, "Let them fecht wha will, bide ye at hame and be laird of Abercairney."
The main line of the Morays, however, was represented by Sir John de Moravia, Sheriff of Perth in the time of William the Lion, 1165-1214. The son of this individual is named in a charter of 1284, " Dominus Malcomus de Moravia, Miles, Vicecomes de Perth." The successor of the latter, Sir William de Moravia, married Ada, daughter of Malise, Earl or Seneschal of Strathearn, and got with her the lands of Tullibardine in that district, from which his descendants took their title. In the same way another daughter of the Seneschal of Strathearn married the chief of the Grahams, bringing him the estate of Kincardine, adjoining that of Tullibardine in Strathearn and becoming the mother of the great Scottish hero, Sir John the Graham, the friend of Sir William Wallace, and ancestor of the great house of Montrose.
Sir William Murray of Tullibardine, succeeded to the estates of his family in 1446. He was sheriff of Perthshire, and in 1458 one of the lords named for the administration of justice, who were of the king's daily council. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir John Colquhoun of Luss, great chamberlain of Scotland, by whom he had numerous issue. According to tradition, they had seventeen sons, from whom a great many families of the name of Murray are descended. In a curious document entitled "The Declaration of George Halley, in Ochterarder, concerning the Laird of Tullibardine's seventeen sons - 1710", it is stated that they "lived all to be men, and that they waited all one day upon their father at Stirling, to attend the king, with each of them one servant, and their father two. This happening shortly after an Act was made by King James Fifth, discharging any person to travel with great numbers of attendants besides their own family, and having challenged the laird of Tullibardine for breaking the said Act, he answered he brought only his own sons, with their necessary attendants; with which the king was so well pleased that he gave them small lands in heritage".

The eldest of Tullibardine's seventeen sons, Sir William Murray of Tullibardine, had, with other issue, William, his successor, and Sir Andrew Murray, ancestor of the Viscounts Stormont. His great-grandson, Sir William Murray of Tullibardine, was a zealous promoter of the Reformation in Scotland. George Halley, in the curious document already quoted, says that "Sir William Murray of Tullibardine having broke Argyll's face with the hilt of his sword, in King James the Sixth's presence, was obliged to leave the kingdom. Afterwards, the king's mails and slaughter cows were not paid, neither could any subject to the realm be able to compel those who were bound to pay them; upon which the king cried out - 'O, If I had Will Murray again, he would soon get my mails and slaughter cows'; to which one standing by replied - 'That if his Majesty would not take Sir William Murray's life, he might return shortly'. The king answered, 'He would be loath to take his life, for he had not another subject like him!'. Upon which promise Sir William Murray returned and got a commission for the king to go to the north, and lift up the mails and the cows, which he speedily did, to the great satisfaction of the king, so that immediately after he was made lord comptroller". This office be obtained in 1565.

His eldest son, Sir John Murray, the twelfth feudal baron of Tullibardine, was brought up with King James, who in 1592 constituted him his master of the household. On 10th July 1606 he was created Earl of Tullibardine. His lordship married Catherine, fourth daughter of David, second Lord Drummond, and died in 1609.

His eldest son, William, second Earl of Tullibardine, married Lady Borothea Stewart, eldest daughter and heir of line of the fifth Earl of Athole of the Stewart family, who died in 1595 without make issue. He eventually, in 1625, petitioned King Charles the First for the earldom of Athole. The king received the petition graciously, and gave his royal word that it should be done. The earl accordingly surrendered the title of Earl of Tullibardine into the king's hands, 1st April 1626, to be conferred on his brother Sir Patrick Murray as a separate dignity, but before the patents could be issued, his lordship died the same year. His son John, however, obtained in February 1629 the title of Earl of Athole, and thus became the first earl of the Murray branch, and the earldom of Tullibardine was at the same time granted to Sir Patrick. This Earl of Athole was a zealous royalist, and joined the association formed by the Earl of Montrose for the king at Cumbernauld, in January 1641. He died in June 1642. His eldest son John, second Earl of Athole of the Murray family, also faithfully adhered to Charles the First, and was excepted by Cromwell out of his act of grace and indemnity, 12th April 1654, when he was only about nineteen years of age. At the Restoration, he was sworn a privy counciller, obtained a charter of the hereditary office of sheriff of Fife, and in 1663 was appointed justice-general of Scotland. In 1670 he was constituted captain of the king's guards, in 1672 keeper of the privy seal, and 14th January 1673, an extraordinary lord of session. In 1670 he succeeded to the earldom of Tullibardine on the death of James, fourth earl of the new creation, and was created Marquis of Athole in 1676. He increased the power of his family by his marriage with Lady Amelia Sophia of Derby, beheaded for his loyalty 15th October 1651. Through her mother, Charlotte de la Tremouille, daughter of Claude de la Tremouille, Duke of Thouars and Prince of Palmont, she was related in blood to the Emperor of Germany, the kings of France and Spain, and most of the principal families of Europe; and by her the family of Athole acquired the seignory of the Isle of Man, and also large property in that island.

John, the second Marquis and first Duke of Athole, then designated Lord Murray, was one of the commissioners for inquiring into the massacre of Glencoe in 1693. He was created a peer in his father's lifetime, by the title of Earl of Tullibardine, Viscount of Glenalmond, and Lord Murray, for life, by patent dated 27th July 1696, and in April 1703 he was appointed lord privy seal. On the 30th July of that year, immediately after his father's death, he was created Duke of Athole by Queen Anne, and invested with the order of the Thistle. His grace died 14th November 1724. He was twice married; first to Catherine, daughter of the Duke of Hamilton, by whom he had six sons and a daughter, and secondly to Mary, daughter of William Lord Ross, by whom he had three sons and a daughter. His eldest son John, Marquis of Tullibardine, was killed at the battle of Malplaquet in 1709. His second son William, who succeeded his brother, was the Marquis of Tullibardine who acted the prominent part in both the Scottish rebellions of last century. In 1745 he accompanied Prince Charles Edward to Scotland, and landed with him at Borodale 25th July. He was styled Duke of Athole by the Jacobites. After the battle of Culloden he fled to the westward, intending to embark for the Isle of Mull, but being unable, from the bad state of his health, to bear the fatigue of travelling under concealment, he surrendered, on the 27th April 1746, to Mr Buchannan of Drummakill, a Stirlingshire gentleman. Being conveyed to London he was committed to the Tower, where he died on the 9th July following.

James, the second Duke of Athole, was the third son of the first duke. He succeeded to the dukedom on the death of his father in November 1724, in the lifetime of his elder brother William, attainted by parliament. Being maternal great-grandson of James, seventh Earl of Derby, upon the death of the tenth earl of that line he claimed and was allowed the English barony of Strange, which had been conferred on Lord Derby by writ of summons in 1628. His grace was married, first to Jean, widow of James Lannoy of Hammersmith, and sister of Sir John Frederick, Bart, by whom he had a son and two daughters; secondly to Jane, daughter of John Drummond of Megginch, who had no issue. The latter was the heroine of Dr Austen's song of 'For lack of gold she's left me, O!@. She was betrothed to that gentleman, a physician in Edinburgh, when the Duke of Athole saw her, and falling in love with her, made proposals of marriage, which were accepted; and, as Burns says, she jilted the doctor. Having survived her first husband, she married a second time, Lord Adam Gordon.

The son and the eldest daughter of the second Duke of Athole died young. Charlotte, his youngest daughter, succeeded on his death, which took place in 1764, to the barony of Strange and the sovereignty of the Isle of Man. She married her cousin, John Murray, Esq., eldest son of Lord George Murray, fifth son of the first duke, and the celebrated generalissimo of the forces of Prince Charles Edward in 1745. Though Lord George was attained by parliament for his share in the rebellion, his son was allowed to succeed his uncle and father-in-law as third duke, and in 1765 he and his duchess disposed of their sovereignty of the Isle of Man to the British government for seventy thousand pounds, reserving, however, their landed interest in the island, with the patronage of the bishopric and other ecclesiastical benefices, on payment of the annual sum of one hundred and one pounds fifteen shillings and eleven pence, and rendering two falcons to the kings and queen of England upon the days of their coronation. His grace, who had seven sons and four daughters, died 5th November 1774, and was succeeded by his eldest son John, fourth duke, who in 1786 was created Earl Strange and Baron Murray of Stanley, in the peerage of the United Kingdom. He died in 1830. The fourth duke was succeeded by his eldest son John, who was for many years a recluse, and died single 14th September 1846. His next brother James, a major-general in the army, was created a peer of the United Kingdom, as baron Glenlyon of Glenlyon, in the county of Perth, 9th July 1821. He married in May 1810, Emily, second daughter of the Duke of Northumberland, and by her he had two sons and two daughters. He died in 1837. His eldest son, George Augustus Frederick John, Lord Glenlyon, became on the death of his uncle in 1846, sixth Duke of Athole. He died in 1864, and was succeeded by his only son, John James Hugh Henry, seventh Duke of Athole, who inherited the barony of Percy and several co-heirships on the death of his great uncle Algeron, fourth Duke of Northumberland in 1865. The family residence of the Duke of Athole is Blair Castle, Perthshire.

The first baronet of the Ochtertyre family was created William Moray of Ochtertyre, who was created a baron of Nova Scotia, with, remainder to his heirs male, 7th June 1673. He was descended from Patrick Moray, the first styled of Ochtertyre, who died in 1476, a son of Sir David Murray of Tullibardine. The family continued to spell their name Moray till 1739, when the present orthography, Murray, was adopted by Sir William, third baronet.
Needless to say, the House of Atholl and the great family of Moray or Murray have always played a striking and strenuous part in the history of Scotland. Their feuds with their neighbours have not been so numerous as those of many other clans, but one at least was long continued and included one of the most tragic episodes in clan warfare. It was the feud between the Murrays of Auchtertyre and the Drummonds in Strathearn. A mutual jealousy existed for centuries between the two families, and it came to a head in 1490, when Murray of Auchtertyre was induced to poind certain cattle belonging to the Drummonds, for payment of a debt demanded by the Abbot of Inchaffray. In revenge, William, Master of Drummond, son of the first Lord Drummond, led an attack against the Murrays. In the battle at Knockmary near Crieff the Murrays were at first successful, but the Drummonds, being reinforced, finally drove them off the field. The fugitives took refuge in the little kirk of Monzievaird, on the spot where the Mausoleum now stands in the park of Auchtertyre, and for a time the pursuers could not find them. But a too zealous Murray clansman, seeing his chance, shot an arrow from the kirk and killed a Drummond; whereupon the Drummonds heaped combustibles round the little fane, and burned it with all it contained to ashes. Eight score Murrays were included in the holocaust, only one of those within the kirk escaping by the compassion of a Drummond clansman outside, who was his relation, and who, for his kindness, had to flee from the wrath of his own clansmen to Ireland for a time.

Ancient Genealogies as recorded by O'Hart

"Irish Pedigrees or the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation", by John O'Hart is one of the best known Irish genealogical publications in the world. The first edition appeared in 1876, but was followed by several subsequent editions that added greatly to the overall size of the work. The most quoted edition was published in New York in 1923, twenty years after the author's death. It is worth mentioning here that the original work did not include and heraldic (coat of arms) information and that this was added to posthumous publications by unscrupulous publishers, presumably to increase sales. In general, O'Hart is a dubious source, at best, for such information.
John O'Hart was born in Crossmolina, Co. Mayo, in 1824. He received an excellent education with the intention of joining the priesthood. However, he instead spent two years in the constabulary (the police), after which he was employed by the Commissioners of National Education in Ireland from 1845, the first year of the Famine. He became an Associate in Arts at the Queen's University, and thereafter he was an active member of several scholarly societies. He was an avid genealogist and took a keen interest in Irish history, despite never receiving formal training as an historian. Politically he was an Irish nationalist, and in religious matters, a committed Catholic. Both of these factors permeated his work. He died in 1902 in Clontarf, Co. Dublin, at the age of 78.
O'Hart used many sources to compile the information that appears in his major work. His principal sources were Gaelic genealogies, like those of O'Clery, MacFirbis and O'Farrell. Along with the Gaelic annals, especially the Annals of the Four Masters, O'Hart was able to 'reconstruct' the medieval and ancient pedigree that appears here. He also used later sources, like the works of Burke, Collins, Harris, Lodge and Ware to extend these lineages into the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. But arguably the most important information contained in these genealogies came where O'Hart gathered the details directly from the families concerned, often from private papers or family tradition.
Irish mythology records that every family was descended from a certain Milesius of Spain who in about 500 BC led his followers to invade and conquer Ireland. The Christian monks who wrote these genealogies down in the 9th century, 2,500 years after Milesius, also added their own beliefs. So they recorded that Milesius was the 36th in descent from Adam! O'Hart, being both an ardent believer in the Gaelic myths and Christianity, followed their example. In his Gaelic genealogies a number representing the generation of descent from Adam precedes every generation. O'Hart showed, probably incorrectly, that every Gaelic family was descended from four of Milesius's family. These were his three sons, Heber, Ir and Heremon, and his uncle Ithe. These four were considered the 'stem' lines of the genealogies that followed. The latest scientiific evidence suggests that while the Celts had an overwhelming cultural influence on Ireland, the numbers of them that invaded Ireland were not all that huge and from the genetic point of view they are just a part of the mix that made up the Irish population.
While he undertook a great deal of research, using the majority of available published sources, many Gaelic scholars have superseded his work over the last 100 years. He was not familiar with the abundant unpublished Gaelic manuscript sources available. These have shown that many of his genealogies are incorrect for the years prior to 1600 AD. Furthermore, O'Hart was not a professional historian or genealogist, and had little training in using the esoteric sources he consulted. As a consequence he misunderstood a great deal about Gaelic society and culture, a world which had largely disappeared from Ireland long before he put pen to paper. He was also credulous in using the sources he did consult, believing that the myths were fact.
In short, while the pedigree below is interesting, it should be read with a sceptical eye, and the further back you go, the more sceptical your eye should become.


1. Adam
2. Seth
3. Enos
4. Cainan
5. Mahalaleel
6. Jared
7. Enoch
8. Methuselah
9. Lamech
10. Noah divided the world amongst his three sons, begotten of his wife Titea: viz., to Shem he gave Asia, within the Euphrates, to the Indian Ocean; to Ham he gave Syria, Arabia, and Africa; and to Japhet, the rest of Asia beyond the Euphrates, together with Europe to Gadea (or Cadiz).
11. Japhet was the eldest son of Noah. He had fifteen sons, amongst whom he divided Europe and the part of Asia which his father had allotted to him.
12. Magog: From whom descended the Parthians, Bactrians, Amazons, etc.; Parthalon, the first planter of Ireland, about three hundred years after the Flood; and also the rest of the colonies that planted there, viz., the Nemedians, who planted Ireland, Anno Mundi three thousand and forty-six, or three hundred and eighteen years after the birth of Abraham, and two thousand one hundred and fifty-three years before Christ. The Nemedians continued in Ireland for two hundred and seventeen years; within which time a colony of theirs went into the northern parts of Scotland, under the conduct of their leader Briottan Maol, from whom Britain takes its name, and not from "Brutus," as some persons believed. From Magog were also descended the Belgarian, Belgian, Firbolgian or Firvolgian colony that succeeded the Nemedians, Anno Mundi, three thousand two hundred and sixty-six, and who first erected Ireland into a Monarchy. [According to some writers, the Fomorians invaded Ireland next after the Nemedians.] This Belgarian of Firvolgian colony continued in Ireland for thirty-six years, under nine of their Kings; when they were supplanted by the Tuatha-de-Danann (which means, according to some authorities, "the people of the god Dan," whom they adored), who possessed Ireland for one hundred and ninety-seven years, during the reigns of nine of their kings; and who were then conquered by the Gaelic, Milesian, or Scotic Nation (the three names by which the Irish people were known), Anno Mundi three thousand five hundred. This Milesian or Scotic Irish Nation possessed and enjoyed the Kingdom of Ireland for two thousand eight hundred and eighty-five years, under one hundred and eighty-three Monarchs; until their submission to King Henry the Second of England, Anno Domini one thousand one hundred and eighty-six.
13. Boath, one of the sons of Magog; to whom Scythia came as his lot, upon the division of the Earth by Noah amongst his sons, and by Japhet of his part thereof amongst his sons.
14. Phœniusa Farsaidh (or Fenius Farsa) was King of Scythia, at the time when Ninus ruled the Assyrian Empire; and, being a wise man and desirous to learn the languages that not long before confounded the builders of the Tower of Babel, employed able and learned men to go among the dispersed multitude to learn their several languages; who sometime after returning well skilled in what they went for, Phœniusa Farsaidh erected a school in the valley of Senaar, near the city of Æothena, in the forty-second year of the reign of Ninus; whereupon, having continued there with his younger son Niul for twenty years, he returned home to his kingdom, which, at his death, he left to the oldest son Nenuall; leaving to Niul no other patrimony than his learning and the benefit of the said school.
15. Niul, after his father returned to Scythia, continued some time at œothena, teaching the languages and other laudable sciences, until upon report of his great learning he was invited into Egypt by Pharaoh, the King; who gave him the land of Campus Cyrunt, near the Red Sea to inhabit, and his daughter Scota in marriage; from whom their posterity are ever since called Scots; but, according to some annalists, the name "Scots" is derived from the word Scythia. It was this Niul that employed Gaodhal [Gael], son of Ethor, a learned and skilful man, to compose or rather refine and adorn the language, called Bearla Tobbai, which was common to all Niul's posterity, and afterwards called Gaodhilg (or Gaelic), from the said Gaodhal who composed or refined it; and for his sake also Niul called his own eldest son "Gaodhal."
16. Gaodhal (or Gathelus), the son of Niul, and ancestor of Clan-na-Gael, that is, "the children or descendants of Gaodhal". In his youth this Gaodhal was stung in the neck by a serpent, and was immediately brought to Moses, who, laying his rod upon the wounded place, instantly cured him; whence followed the word "Glas" to be added to his named, as Gaodhal Glas (glas: Irish, green; Lat. glaucus; Gr. glaukos), on account of the green scar which the word signifies, and which, during his life, remained on his neck after the wound was healed. And Gaodhal obtained a further blessing, namely-that no venomous beast can live any time where his posterity should inhabit; which is verified in Creta or Candia, Gothia or Getulia, Ireland, etc. The Irish chroniclers affirm that from this time Gaodhal and his posterity did paint the figures of Beasts, Birds, etc., on their banners and shields, to distinguish their tribes and septs, in imitation of the Israelites; and that a "Thunderbolt" was the cognisance in their chief standard for many generations after this Gaodhal.
17. Asruth, after his father's death, continued in Egypt and governed his colony in peace during his life.
18. Sruth, soon after his father's death, was set upon by the Egyptians, on account of their former animosities towards their predecessors for having taken part with the Israelites against them; which animosities until then lay raked up in the embers, and now broke out in a flame to that degree, that after many battles and conflicts wherein most of his colony lost their live, Sruth was forced with the few remaining to depart the country; and, after many traverses at sea, arrived at the Island of Creta (now called Candia), where he paid his last tribute to nature.
19. Heber Scut (scut: Irish, a Scot), after his father's death and a year's stay in Creta, departed thence, leaving some of his people to inhabit the Island, where some of their posterity likely still remain; "because the Island breeds no venomous serpent ever since." He and his people soon after arrived in Scythia; where his cousins, the posterity of Nenuall (eldest son of Fenius Farsa, above mentioned), refusing to allot a place of habitation form him and his colony, they fought many battles wherein Heber (with the assistance of some of the natives who were ill-affected towards their king), being always victor, he at length forced the sovereignty from the other, and settled himself and his colony in Scythia, who continued there for four generations. (Hence the epithet Scut, "a Scot" or "a Scythian," was applied to this Heber, who was accordingly called Heber Scot.) Heber Scot was afterwards slain in battle by Noemus the former king's son.
20. Baouman;
21 Ogaman; and
22. Tait, were each kings of Scythia, but in constant war with the natives; so that after Tait's death his son,
23. Agnon and his followers betook themselves to sea, wandering and coasting upon the Caspian Sean for several (some say seven) years in which time he died.
24. Lamhfionn and his fleet remained at sea for some time, after his father's death, resting and refreshing themselves upon such islands as they met with. It was then the Cachear, their magician or Druid, foretold that there would be no end of their peregrinations and travel until they should arrive at the Western Island of Europe, now called Ireland, which was the place destined for their future and lasting abode and settlement; and that not they but their posterity after three hundred years should arrive there. After many traverses of fortune at sea, this little fleet with their leader arrived at last and landed at Gothia or Geulia-more recently called Lybia, where Carthage was afterwards built; and, soon after, Lamhfionn died there.
25. Heber Glunfionn was born in Gothia, where he died. His posterity continued there to the eighth generation; and were kings or chief rulers there for one hundred and fifty years-some say three hundred years.
26 Agnan Fionn;
27. Febric Glas;
28. Nenuall;
29. Nuadhad;
30. Alladh;
31. Arcadh; and
32. Deag: of these nothing remarkable is mentioned, but that they lived and died kings in Gothia or Getulia.
33. Brath was born in Gothia. Remembering the Druid's prediction, and his people having considerably multiplied during their abode in Geulia, he departed thence with a numerous fleet to seek out the country destined for their final settlement, by the prophecy of Cachear, the Druid above mentioned; and, after some time, he landed upon the coast of Spain, and by strong hand settled himself and his colony in Galicia, in the north of that country.
34. Breoghan (or Brigus) was king of Galicia, Andalusia, Murcia, Castile, and Portugal-all of which he conquered. He built Breoghan's Tower or Brigantia in Galicia, and the city of Brigantia or Braganza in Portugal-called after him; and the kingdom of Castile was then also called after him Brigia. It is considered that "Castile" itself was so called from the figure of a castle which Brigus bore for his Arms on his banner. Brigus sent a colony into Britain, who settled in that territory now known as the counties of York, Lancaster, Durham, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, and, after him were called Brigantes; whose posterity gave formidable opposition to the Romans, at the time of the Roman invasion of Britain.
35. Bilé; was king of those countries after his father's death; and his son Galamh [galav] or Milesius succeeded him. This Bilé had a brother named Ithe.
36. Milesius, in his youth and in his father's life-time, went into Scythia, where he was kindly received by the king of that country, who gave him his daughter in marriage, and appointed him General of his forces. In this capacity Milesius defeated the king's enemies, gained much fame, and the love of all the king's subjects. His growing greatness and popularity excited against him the jealousy of the king; who, fearing the worst, resolved on privately dispatching Milesius our of the way, for, openly, he dare not attempt it. Admonished of the king's intentions in his regard, Milesius slew him; and thereupon quitted Scythia and retired into Egypt with a fleet of sixty sail. Pharaoh Nectonibus, then king of Egypt, being informed of his arrival and of his great valour, wisdom, and conduct in arms, made him General of all his forces against the king of Ethiopia then invading his country. Here, as in Scythia, Milesius was victorious; he forced the enemy to submit to the conqueror's own terms of peace. By these exploits Milesius found great favour with Pharaoh, who gave him, being then a widower, his daughter Scota in marriage; and kept him eight years afterwards in Egypt. During the sojourn of Milesius in Egypt, he employed the most ingenious and able persons among his people to be instructed in the several trades, arts, and sciences used in Egypt; in order to have them taught to the rest of his people on his return to Spain. [The original name of Milesius of Spain was "Galamh" (gall: Irish, a stranger; amh, a negative affix), which means, no stranger: meaning that he was no stranger in Egypt, where he was called "Milethea Spaine," which was afterwards contracted to "Miló Spaine" (meaning the Spanish Hero), and finally to "Milesiius" (mileadh: Irish, a hero; Lat. miles, a soldier).] At length Milesius took leave of his father-in-law, and steered towards Spain; where he arrived to the great joy and comfort of his people; who were much harassed by the rebellion of the natives and by the intrusion of other foreign nations that forced in after his father's death, and during his own long absence from Spain. With these and those he often met; and, in fifty-four battles, victoriously fought, he routed, destroyed, and totally extirpated them out of the country, which he settled in peace and quietness. In his reign a great dearth and famine occurred in Spain, of twenty-six years' continuance, occasioned, as well by reason of the former troubles which hindered the people from cultivating, and manuring the ground, as for want of rain to moisten the earth - but Milesius superstitiously believed the famine to have fallen upon him and his people as a judgment and punishment from their gods, for their negligence in seeking out the country destined for their final abode, so long before foretold by Cachear their Druid or magician, as already mentioned - the time limited by the prophecy for the accomplishment thereof being now nearly, if not fully, expired. To expiate his fault and to comply with the will of his gods, Milesius, with the general approbation of his people, sent his uncle Ithe, with his son Lughaidh [Luy], and one hundred and fifty stout men to bring them an account of those western islands; who, accordingly, arriving at the island since then called Ireland, and landing in that part of it now called Munster, left his son with fifty of his men to guard the ship, and with the rest travelled about the island. Informed, among other things, that the three sons of Cearmad, called Mac-Cuill, MacCeacht, and MacGreine, did then and for thirty years before rule and govern the island, each for one year, in his turn; and that the country was called after the names of their three queens - Eire, Fodhla, and Banbha, respectively: one year called "Eire," the next "Fodhla," and the next "Banbha," as their husbands reigned in their regular turns; by which names the island is ever since indifferently called, but most commonly "Eire," because that MacCuill, the husband of Eire, ruled and governed the country in his turn the year that the Clan-na-Milé (or the sons of Milesius) arrived in and conquered Ireland. And being further informed that the three brothers were then at their palace at Aileach Neid, in the north part of the country, engaged in the settlement of some disputes concerning their family jewels, Ithe directed his course thither; sending orders to his son to sail about with his ship and the rest of his men, and meet him there. When Ithe arrived where the (Danann) brothers were, be was honourably received and entertained by them; and, finding him to be a mail of great wisdom. and knowledge, they referred their disputes to him for decision. That decision having met their entire satisfaction, Ithe exhorted them to mutual love, peace, and forbearance; adding much in praise of their delightful, pleasant, and fruitful country; and then took his leave, to return to his ship, and go back to Spain. No sooner was he gone than the brothers; began to reflect on the high commendations which Ithe gave of the Island; and, suspecting his design of bringing others to invade it, resolved to prevent them, and therefore pursued him with a strong party, overtook him, fought and routed his men and wounded himself to death (before his son or the rest of his men left on ship-board could come to his rescue) at a place called, from that fight and his name, Magh Ithe or "The plain of Ithe" (an extensive plain in the barony of Raphoe, county Donegal); whence his son, having found him in that condition, brought his dead and mangled body back into Spain, and there exposed it to public view, thereby to excite his friends and relations to avenge his murder. [Note: that all the invaders and planters of Ireland, namely, Parthalonians, Neimhedh, the Firbolgs, Tuatha-de-Danann, and Clan-na-Milé, where originally Scythians, of the line of Japbet, who had the language called Bearla-Tobbai or Gaoidhilg [Gaelic] common amongst them all; and consequently not to be wondered at, that Ithe and the Tuatha-de-Danann understood one another without an Interpreter - both speaking the same language, though perhaps with some difference in the accent]. The exposing of the dead body of Ithe had the desired effect; for, thereupon, Milesius made great preparations in order to invade Ireland - as well to avenge his uncle's death, as also in obedience to the will of his gods, signified by the prophecy of Cachear, aforesaid. But, before he could effect that object, he died, leaving the care, and charge of that expedition upon his eight legitimate sons by his two wives before mentioned. Milesius was a very valiant champion, a great warrior, and fortunate and prosperous in all his undertakings: witness his name of "Milesius," given him from the many battles (some say a thousand, which the word "Milé" signifies in Irish as well as in Latin) which he victoriously fought and won, as well in Spain, as in all the other countries and kingdoms be traversed in his younger days. The eight brothers were neither forgetful nor negligent in the execution of their father's command; but, soon after his death, with a numerous fleet well manned and equipped, set forth from Breoghan's Tower or Brigantia (now Corunna) in Galicia, in Spain, and sailed prosperously to the coasts of Ireland or lnis-Fail, where they met many difficulties and various chances before they could land: occasioned by the diabolical arts, sorceries, and enchantments used by the Tuatha-de-Danann, to obstruct their landing; for, by their magic art, they enchanted the island so as to appear to the Milesians or Clan-na-Milé in the form of a Hog, and no way to come at it (whence the island, among the many other names it had before, was called "Muc-Inis or "The Hog Island"); and withal raised so great a storm, that the Milesian fleet was thereby totally dispersed and many of them cast away, wherein five of the eight brothers, sons of Milesius, lost their lives. That part of the fleet commanded by Heber, Heremon, and Amergin (the three surviving, brothers), and Heber Donn, son of Ir (one of the brothers lost in the storm), overcame all opposition, landed safe, fought and routed the three Tuatha-de Danann Kings at Slieve-Mis, and thence pursued and overtook them at Tailten, where another bloody battle was fought; wherein the three (Tuatha-de-Danann) Kings and their Queens were slain, and their army utterly routed and destroyed: so that they could never after give any opposition to the Clan-na-Milé in their new conquest; who, having thus sufficiently avenged the death of their great uncle Ithe, gained the possession of the country foretold them by Cachear, some ages past, as already mentioned. Heber and Heremon, the chief leading men remaining of the eight brothers, sons of Milesius aforesaid, divided the kingdom between them (allotting a proportion of land to their brother Amergin, who was their Arch-priest, Druid, or magician; and to their nephew Heber Donn, and to the rest of their chief commanders), and became jointly the first of one hundred and eighty-three Kings or sole Monarchs of the Gaelic, Milesian, or Scottish Race, that ruled and governed Ireland, successively, for two thousand eight hundred and eighty-five years from the first year of their reign), Anno Mundi three thousand five hundred, to their submission to the Crown of England in the person of King Henry the Second; who, being also of the Milesian Race by Maude, his mother, was lineally descended from Fergus Mór MacEarca, first King of Scotland, who was descended from the said Heremon - so that the succession may be truly said to continue in the Milesian Blood from before Christ one thousand six hundred and ninety-nine years down to the present time. Heber and Heremon reigned jointly one year only, when, upon a difference between their ambitious wives, they quarrelled and fought a battle at Ardeath or Geshill (Geashill, near Tullamore in the King's County), where Heber was slain by Heremon; and, soon after, Amergin, who claimed an equal share in the government, was, in another battle fought between them, likewise slain by Heremon. Thus, Heremon became sole Monarch, and made a new division of the land amongst his comrades and friends, viz.: the south part, now called Munster, he gave to his brother Heber's four sons, Er, Orba, Feron, and Fergna; the north part, now Ulster, he gave to Ir's only son Heber Donn; the east part or Coigeadh, Galian, now called Leinster, be gave to Criomthann-sciath-bheil, one of his commanders; and the west part, now called Connaught, Heremon gave to Un-Mac-Oigge, another of his commanders; allotting a part of Munster to Lughaidh (the son of Ithe, the first Milesian discoverer of Ireland), amongst his brother Heber's sons. From these three brothers, Heber, Ir, and Heremon (Amergin dying without issue), are descended all the Milesian Irish of Ireland and Scotland, viz.: from Heber, the eldest brother, the provincial Kings of Munster (of whom thirty-eight were sole Monarchs of Ireland), and most of the nobility and gentry of Munster, and many noble families in Scotland, are descended. From Ir, the second brother, all the provincial Kings of Ulster (of whom twenty-six were sole Monarchs of Ireland), and all the ancient nobility and gentry of Ulster, and many noble families in Leinster, Munster, and Connaught, derive their pedigrees; and, in Scotland, the Clan-na-Rory - the descendants of an eminent man, named Ruadhri or Roderick, who was Monarch of Ireland for seventy years (viz., from Before Christ 288 to 218). From Heremon, the youngest of the three brothers, were descended one hundred and fourteen sole Monarchs of Ireland: the provincial Kings and Hermonian nobility and gentry of Leinster, Connaught, Meath, Orgiall, Tirowen, Tirconnell, and Clan-na-boy; the Kings of Dalriada; all the Kings of Scotland from Fergus Mór MacEarea, down to the Stuarts; and the Kings and Queens of England from Henry the Second down to tile present time. The issue of Ithe is not accounted among the Milesian Irish or Clan-na-Milé, as not being descended from Milesius, but from his uncle Ithe; of whose posterity there were also some Monarchs of Ireland (see Roll of the Irish Monarchs, infra), and many provincial or half provincial Kings of Munster: that country upon its first division being allocated to the sons of Heber and to Lughaidh, son of Ithe, whose posterity continued there accordingly. This invasion, conquest, or plantation of Ireland by the Milesian or Scottish Nation took place in the Year of the World three thousand Ova hundred, or the next year after Solomon began the foundation of the Temple of Jerusalem, and one thousand six hundred and ninety-nine years before the Nativity of our Saviour Jesus Christ; which, according to the Irish computation of Time, occurred Anno Mundi five thousand one hundred and ninety-nine: therein agreeing with the Septuagint, Roman Martyrologies, Eusebius, Orosius, and other ancient authors; which computation the ancient Irish chroniclers exactly observed in their Books of the Reigns of the Monarchs of Ireland, and other Antiquities of that Kingdom ; out of which the Roll of the Monarchs of Ireland, from the beginning of the Milesian Monarchy to their submission to King Henry the Second of England, a Prince of their own Blood, is exactly collected. [As the Milesian invasion of Ireland took place the next year after the laying of the foundation of the Temple of Jerusalem by Solomon, King of Israel, we may infer that Solomon was contemporary with Milesius of Spain; and that the Pharaoh King of Egypt, who (1 Kings iii. 1,) gave his daughter in marriage to Solomon, was the Pharaoh who conferred on Milesius of Spain the hand of another daughter Scota.] Milesius of Spain bore three Lions in his shield and standard, for the following reasons; namely, that, in his travels in his younger days into foreign countries, passing through Africa, he, by his cunning and valour, killed in one morning three Lions; and that, in memory of so noble and valiant an exploit, he always after bore three Lions on his shield, which his two surviving sons Heber and Heremon, and his grandson Heber Donn, son of Ir, after their conquest of Ireland, divided amongst them, as well as they did the country: each of them. bearing a Lion in his shield and banner, but of different colours; which the Chiefs of their posterity continue to this day: some with additions and differences; others plain and entire as they had it from their ancestors.
37. Heremon: his son. He and his eldest brother Heber were, jointly, the first Milesian Monarchs of Ireland; they began to reign, A.M. 3,500, or, Before Christ, 1699. After Heber was slain, B.C. 1698, Heremon reigned singly for fourteen years; during which time a certain colony called by the Irish Cruithneaigh, in English "Cruthneans" or Picts, arrived in Ireland and requested Heremon to assign them a part of the country to settle in, which he refused; but, giving them as wives the widows of the Tuatha-de-Danans, slain in battle, he sent them with a strong party of his own forces to conquer the country then called "Alba," but now Scotland; conditionally, that they and their posterity should be tributary to the Monarchs of Ireland. Heremon died, B.C. 1683, and was succeeded by three of his four sons, named Muimne, Luigne, and Laighean, who reigned jointly for three years, and were slain by their Heberian successors.
38. Irial Faidh ("faidh": Irish, a prophet): his son; was the 10th Monarch of Ireland; d. B.C. 1670. This was a very learned King; could foretell things to come; and caused much of the country to be cleared of the ancient forests. He likewise built seven royal palaces, viz., Rath Ciombaoith, Rath Coincheada, Rath Mothuig, Rath Buirioch, Rath Luachat, Rath Croicne, and Rath Boachoill. He won four remarkable battles over his enemies: - Ard Inmath, at Teabtha, where Stirne, the son of Dubh, son of Fomhar, was slain; the second battle was at Teanmhuighe, against the Fomhoraice, where Eichtghe, their leader, was slain; the third was the battle of Loch Muighe, where Lugrot, the son of Moghfeibhis, was slain; and the fourth was the battle of Cuill Martho, where the four sons of Heber were defeated. Irial died in the second year after this battle, having reigned 10 years, and was buried at Magh Muagh.
39. Eithrial: his son; was the 11th Monarch; reigned 20 years; and was slain by Conmaol, the son of Heber Fionn, at the battle of Soirrean, in Leinster, B.C. 1650.
This also was a learned King, he wrote with his own hand the History of the Gaels (or Gadelians); in his reign seven large woods were cleared and much advance made in the practice of agriculture.
40. Foll-Aich: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by Conmaol, the slayer of his father, who usurped his place.
41. Tigernmas: his son; was the 13th Monarch, and reigned 77 years; according to Keating, he reigned but 50 years; he fought twenty-seven battles with the followers of the family of Heber Fionn, all which he gained. In his reign gold was mined near the Liffey, and skilfully worked by Inchadhan. This King also made a law that each grade of society should be known by the number of colours in its wearing apparel: - the clothes of a slave should be of one colour; those of a soldier of two; the dress of a commanding officer to be of three colours; a gentleman's dress, who kept a table for the free entertainment of strangers, to be of four colours; five colours to be allowed to the nobility (the chiefs); and the King, Queen, and Royal Family, as well as the Druids, historians, and other learned men to wear six colours.
This King died, B.C. 1543, on the Eve of 1st of November, with two-thirds of the people of Ireland, at Magh Sleaght (or Field of Adoration), in the county of Leitrim, as he was adoring the Sun-God, Crom Cruach (a quo Macroom).
Historians say this Monarch was the first who introduced image worship in Ireland.
42. Enboath: his son. It was in this prince's lifetime that the Kingdom was divided in two parts by a line drawn from Drogheda to Limerick.
43. Smiomghall: his son; in his lifetime the Picts in Scotland were forced to abide by their oath, and pay homage to the Irish Monarch; seven large woods were also cut down.
44. Fiacha Labhrainn: his son; was the 18th Monarch; reigned 24 years; slew Eochaidh Faobharglas, of the line of Heber, at the battle of Carman. During his reign all the inhabitants of Scotland were brought in subjection to the Irish Monarchy, and the conquest was secured by his son the 20th Monarch. Fiacha at length (B.C. 1448) fell in the battle of Bealgadain, by the hands of Eochaidh Mumho, the son of Moefeibhis, of the race of Heber Fionn.
45. Aongus Olmucach: his son; was the 20th Monarch; in his reign the Picts again refused to pay the tribute imposed on them 250 years before, by Heremon, but this Monarch went with a strong army into Alba and in thirty pitched battles overcame them and forced them to pay the required tribute.
Aongus was at length slain by Eana, in the battle of Carman, B.C. 1409.
46. Main: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by Eadna, of the line of Heber Fionn. In his time silver shields were given as rewards for bravery to the Irish militia.
47. Rotheachtach: his son; was the 22nd Monarch; slain, B.C. 1357, by Sedne (or Seadhna), of the Line of Ir.
48. Dein: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by his father's slayer, and his son. In his time gentlemen and noblemen first wore gold chains round their necks, as a sign of their birth; and golden helmets were given to brave soldiers,
49. Siorna "Saoghalach" (long-oevus): his son; was the 34th Monarch; he obtained the name "Saoghalach" on account of his extraordinary long life; slain, B.C 1030, at Aillin, by Rotheachta, of the line of Heber Fionn, who usurped the Monarchy, thereby excluding from the throne -
50. Olioll Aolcheoin: son of Siorna Saoghalach.
51. Gialchadh: his son; was the 37th Monarch; killed by Art Imleach, of the Line of Heber Fionn, at Moighe Muadh, B.C. 1013.
52. Nuadhas Fionnfail: his son; was the 39th Monarch; slain by Breasrioghacta, his successor, B.C. 961.
53. Aedan Glas: his son. In his time the coast was infested with pirates; and there occurred a dreadful plague (Apthach) which swept away most of the inhabitants.
54. Simeon Breac: his son; was the 44th Monarch; he inhumanly caused his predecessor to be torn asunder; but, after a reign of six years, he met with a like death, by order of Duach Fionn, son to the murdered King, B.C. 903.
55. Muredach Bolgach: his son; was the 46th Monarch; killed by Eadhna Dearg, B.C. 892; he had two sons - Duach Teamhrach, and Fiacha.
56. Fiacha Tolgrach: son of Muredach; was the 55th Monarch. His brother Duach had two sons, Eochaidh Framhuine and Conang Beag-eaglach, who were the 51st and 53rd Monarchs of Ireland.
Fiacha's life was ended by the sword of Oilioll Fionn, of the Line of Heber Fionn, B.C. 795.
57. Duach Ladhrach: his son; was the 59th Monarch; killed by Lughaidh Laighe, son of Oilioll Fionn, B.C. 737.
58. Eochaidh Buadhach: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by his father's slayer. In his time the kingdom was twice visited with a plague.
59. Ugaine Mór: his son. This Ugaine (or Hugony) the Great was the 66th Monarch of Ireland. Was called Mór on account of his extensive dominions, - being sovereign of all the Islands of Western Europe. Was married to Cæsair, daughter to the King of France, and by her had issue - twenty-two sons and three daughters. In order to prevent these children encroaching on each other he divided the Kingdom into twenty-five portions, allotting to each his (or her) distinct inheritance. By means of this division the taxes of the country were collected during the succeeding 300 years. All the sons died without issue except two, viz: - Laeghaire Lorc, ancestor of all the Leinster Heremonians; and Cobthach Caolbhreagh, from whom the Heremonians of Leath Cuinn, viz., Meath, Ulster, and Conacht derive their pedigree.
Ugaine was at length, B.C. 593, slain by Badhbhchadh, who failed to secure the fruits of his murder - the Irish Throne, as he was executed by order of Laeghaire Lorc, the murdered Monarch's son, who became the 68th Monarch.
60. Laeghaire Lorc, the 68th Monarch of Ireland: son of Ugaine Mór; began to reign, B.C. 593.
61. Olioll Aine: his son.
62. Labhradh Longseach: his son.
63. Olioll Bracan: his son.
64. Æneas Ollamh: his son; the 73rd Monarch.
65. Breassal: his son.
66. Fergus Fortamhail, the 80th Monarch: his son; slain B.C. 384.
67. Felim Fortuin: his son.
68. Crimthann Coscrach: his son; the 85th Monarch.
69. Mogh-Art: his son.
70. Art: his son.
71. Allod (by some called Olioll): his son.
72. Nuadh Falaid: his son.
73. Fearach Foghlas: his son.
74. Olioll Glas: his son.
75. Fiacha Fobrug: his son.
76. Breassal Breac: his son. Had two sons - 1. Lughaidh, 2. Conla, between whom he divided his country, viz. - to his eldest son Lughaidh [Luy], who was ancestor of the Kings, nobility, and gentry of Leinster, he gave all the territories on the north side of the river Bearbha (now the "Barrow"), from Wicklow to Drogheda; and to his son Conla, who was ancestor of the Kings, nobility, and gentry of Ossory, he gave the south part, from the said river to the sea.
77. Luy: son of Breassal Breac.
78. Sedna: his son; built the royal city of Rath Alinne.
79. Nuadhas Neacht: his son; the 96th Monarch.
80. Fergus Fairgé: his son; had a brother named Baoisgne, who was the father of Cubhall [Coole], who was the father of Fionn, commonly called "Finn MacCoole," the illustrious general in the third century of the ancient Irish Militia known as the Fiana Eirionn, or "Fenians of Ireland."
81. Ros: son of Fergus Fairgé.
82. Fionn Filé ("filé:" Irish, a poet): his son.
83. Conchobhar Abhraoidhruaidh: his son; the 99th Monarch of Ireland.
84. Mogh Corb: his son.
85. Cu-Corb: his son; King of Leinster.
86. Niadh [nia] Corb: his son.
87. Cormac Gealtach: his son. Had a brother named Ceathramhadh.
88. Felim Fiorurglas: his son.
89. Cathair Mór, Monarch of Ireland: son of Felim Fiorurglas. Had amongst other children: 1. Ros Failgeach, from whom descended the O'Connor (Faley); 2. Daire, ancestor of O'Gorman; 3. Comthanan, ancestor of Duff, of Leinster; 4. Curigh, who was slain by Fionn MacCumhal (Finn MacCoole); 5. a daughter, Landabaria, who, according to the Ogygia, p. 315, was the third wife of the (110th) Irish Monarch Conn Ceadcathach (or Conn of the Hundred Battles), who succeeded Cathair Mór in the Monarchy; 6. Fiacha Baicheda.
Curigh, No. 4 here mentioned, who was slain by Fionn MacCumhal, had a son named Slectaire; and a daughter named Uchdelbh (or Uchdamhuil), who was wife of Fionn Fothart, a son of Conn of the Hundred Battles. This Slectaire, son of Curigh, had a daughter Corcraine, who was the mother of Diarmid Ua Duibhne, and of Oscar, son of Oissin.
90. Fiacha Baicheda: youngest son of Cathair Mór; d. 220.
91. Breasal Bealach ("bealach:" Irish, large-lipped): his son; a quo O'Bealaigh, anglicised Bailey, Bailie, Baily, Bayly, and Bewley. Was the second Christian King of Leinster.
92. Labhradh: son of Breasal Bealach, the second Christian King of Leinster; had two sons:
I. Eanna Ceannsalach.
II. Deagh, a quo Ui Deagha Mór; in Hy - Cinnselach.
93. Eanna Ceannsalach: elder son of Labhradh; mar. Conang; was called Ceann - Salach (unclean head) by Cednathech the Druid, whom he slew at Cruachan Cleanta (Croghan Hill, in the King's County), where Eanna defeated Eochaidh Muigh Meadhoin (Eochy Moyvone), the Monarch, A.D. 365. Had issue:
I. Feidhlimidh (or Felim).
II. Eochu (or Eochaidh) Ceannsalach, who was exiled to Scotland by the Irish Monarch Niall of the Nine Hostages, whom said Eochu assassinated near Boulogne, on the river Leor (now the Lianne).
III. Crimthann Cass, of whom presently.
IV. Earc.
V. Aongus.
VI. Conal.
VII. Trian.
VIII. Cairpre.
94. Crimthann Cass: third son of Eanna Ceannsalach; was King of Leinster for 40 years; baptized by St. Patrick at Rathvilly, circa 448; slain in 484 by his grandson Eochaidh Guinech of the Hy - Bairche. Married Mell, dau. of Erebran of the Desies in Munster (son of Eoghan Bric, son of Art Cuirb, son of Fiacha Suighde, son of Felim Rachtmar), and had issue:
I. Ingen, wife of Daire MacErcadh of the Hy - Bairche.
II. Nathach (or Dathi).
III. Fiacra.
IV. Eithne Uathach, wife of Aongus MacNadfraech, King of Munster.
V. Fergus, who defeated Diarmuid MacCearbhaill at Drum Laeghaire, by the side of Cais in Hy - Faelain, defending the Boromha.
VI. Aongus.
VII. Etchen.
VIII. Cobthach.
95. Nathach: son of Crimthan Cass; was King of Leinster for 10 years; bapt. in his infancy by St. Patrick. Had issue:
I. Owen Caoch, of whom presently.
II. Cormac.
III. Faelan, who had a son named Fergus.
IV. Olioll.
96. Eoghan (or Owen) Caoch: eldest son of Nathach; had two sons:
I. Siollan, of whom presently.
II. Fergus, ancestor of O'Ryan.
97. Siollan ("siollan:" Irish, a skinny, meagre person): son of Eoghan Caoch; a quo O'Siollain, anglicised Sloan.
98. Faelan: his son; was King of Leinster for 9 years.
99. Faolchu: his son; had three sons:
I. Elodach, King of Leinster for 7 years.
II. Onchu, of whom presently.
III. Aongus, slain A.D. 721 at Maisden, Mullaghmast.
100. Onchu: son of Faolchu.
101. Rudgal: his son; had two sons:
I. Aodh (or Hugh), of whom presently.
II. Flann, slain at Allen, in the co. Kildare, A.D.
102. Aodh: son of Rudgal; had two sons:
I. Diarmuid, of whom presently.
II. Bruadar, slain in 853.
103. Diarmuid: son of Aodh; had two sons:
I. Cairbre, of whom presently.
II. Tadhg, slain in 865.
104. Cairbre: son of Diarmuid; slain in 876.
105. Ceneth: his son; slain by the Danes of Loch Carmen; was King of Leinster for 13 years. Had two sons:
I. Echtighern, King of Leinster for 9 years; slain in 951 by the sons of Ceallach, his brother. He had issue: - 1. Cairpre, abbot of Clonmore, who d. in 974; 2. Aodh, who slew Donal Cloen, in 983; and 3. Bruadar (Bran?) who d. 982, and was King of Leinster for 4 years.
II. Ceallach, slain in 945.
106. Ceallach: second son of Ceneth; was slain by the Ossorians in 945, at Athcliath (or Dublin). He had two sons:
I. Doncadh, King of Leinster for 6 years.
II. Donal.
107. Donal: second son of Ceallach; was King of Leinster for 9 years; slain by the Ossorians in 974. Had issue:
I. Aodh.
II. Doncadh, slain by Donal Cloen in 983.
III. Diarmuid, of whom presently.
IV. Maolruanaidh, who was King of Leinster for 13 years.
108. Diarmuid: third son of Donal; was King of Leinster for 13 years; d. in 997.
109. Donoch Maol-na-mBo: his son; was King of Leinster for 9 years. Had two sons:
I. Donal Reamhar, slain in 1041 at Killmolappog, co. Carlow, had three sons: - 1. Donchadh, slain in 1089 by O'Connor Failghe (Faley); 2. Donal, who was a hostage of Tirlogh O'Brien; and 3. Ruadh, who gave Clonkeen (now known as the "Kill-o'-the Grange"), near Kingstown, to Christ Church in Dublin.
II. Diarmuid, slain in 1072.
110. Diarmuid: second son of Donoch Maol-na-mBo; was the 47th Christian King of Leinster, and the 177th Milesian Monarch of Ireland; was slain on the 23rd Feb., 1072, at Odhba, near Navan; m. Darbhforgal (d. 1080), grand - daughter of the Monarch Brian Boromha, and had issue:
I. Murcha, of whom presently.
II. Glunairn, who in 1071, was slain by the Meath men at Donlah, and buried at Duleek.
III. Enna, who had a son Diarmuid, slain in 1098.
111. Murcha ("muirchu:" Irish, a sea hound, meaning a sea warrior, also called Morogh or Morough), a quo MacMuirchu or MacMorough: eldest son of Diarmuid. From this Murcha, also (and not from his son Murcha), the ClanMorochoe is so called; which has been anglicised O'Moroghoe, and modernized O'Murphy, Murrough, and Murphy. This Murcha was the eldest son of Diarmuid; was the 50th Christian King of Leinster; invaded the Isle of Man in 1070; d. in Dublin on the 8th December, 1090. Had issue:
I. Donal, who was King of Dublin, d. after three days' illness in 1075.
II. Gormlath, who was Abbess of Kildare, d. 1112.
III. Donoch, of whom presently.
IV. Enna, who had a son Diarmuid, d. 1113, at Dublin.
V. Glunairn, whose daughter Sadhbh (d. 1171) was Abbess of Kildare.
VI. Murcha (or Moragh).
112. Donoch MacMorough: the third son of Murcha, No. 111, was King of Dublin, and the 56th Christian King of Leinster; slain in 1115 by Donal O'Brien and the Danes at Dublin. He had two sons:
I. Diarmuid-na-nGhall, of whom presently.
II. Murcha (or Moroch) - na n Gaodhail, from whom descended Davidson or MacDavy Mór. This Murcha was in 1166 elected successor to his brother as King of Leinster, when Diarmuid-na-nGhall was deposed.
113. Diarmuid-na-nGall ("na - nGall:" Irish, of the foreigners): the elder son of Donoch MacMorough; was the 58th Christian King of Leinster; is known as "Dermod MacMorough;" became King of Leinster in 1135; was in 1166 deposed by the Monarch Roderick O'Connor, aided by Tiernan O'Ruarc, Prince of West Brefni; d. in Ferns in January, 1171. Dermod MacMorough had:
I. Aifé (or Eva), who was m. to Richard de Clare, known as "Strongbow;" she d. in 1177.
II. Art MacMorough, slain in 1170 at Athlone, by the Monarch Roderick O'Connor, to whom said Art was given as a hostage.
III. Donal Caomhanach, a quo Kavanagh.
IV. Eanna Ceannsalach, a quo O'Kinsela (one of whose sons was ancestor of Murphy)
V. Orlacan, who m. Donal Mór (O'Brien)

Another line of McMorrough is
112. Morogh MacMorough (a quo Clan Moroghoe): son of Murcha. From this Clan is derived the name O'Moroghoe, which has been anglicised O'Murphy, Murrough, and Murphy.
113. Morogh: son of Morogh; had a brother Donogh, who had a son named Morogh.
114. Morogh-na-Maoir (of the Stewards): son of Morogh (No. 113); living A.D. 1193.
115. Donogh Reamhar: his son; a quo O'Murphy Reamhar. (See the "O'Murphy" No. 10 pedigree.)
116. Morogh: his son.
117. Donogh na-Coille: his son.
118. Diarmuid: his son.
119. Maurice: his son.
120. Donogh Dubh MacMorough O'Murphy

The line of Kinsella continues as follows
114. Eanna Ceannsalach: son of Dermod-na-nGall, King of Leinster; first assumed the sirname Kinselagh.
115. Tirlach ("tor," gen. "tuir:" Irish, a tower or bulwark; Lat. "tur-ris;" and "leac:" Irish, a stone): his son; a quo MacTorleice, anglicised MacTirloch, MacTerence, MacTerry, and Terrie.
116. Moroch: his son.
117. Thomas Fionn: his son.
118. Dermod: his son; had an elder brother named Art, who was slain by MacMorough, in 1383, and from whom descended Slioght Thomas Fionn.
119. Art: his son.
120. Donoch: his son.
121. Arthur: his son.
122. Donoch (2): his son.
123. Edmund Kinselagh: his son.
124. Donoch Dubh: his son; Chief of the sept in 1580.

The Line of Kavanagh continues as follows from 113. Dermod MacMorough
114. Donal Caomhanach ("caomh:" Irish, gentle; Lat. "com-is;" Arab. "kom," noble): son of Dermod na-nGhall (or "Dermod of the strangers," meaning that he sided with the English); a quo O'Caomhanaighe. This Donal Kavanagh who was slain in 1175, was fostered at Kilcavan; had two sons - 1. Connor, who was slain at Athlone in 1170, and 2. Donal Oge. He had a brother Eanna Ceannsalach, a quo Kinsela.
115. Donal Oge: son of Donal; was Prince of Leinster; had two sons - 1. Art, who was beheaded in 1281, and 2. Muirceartach.
116. Muirceartach: younger son of Donal Oge; was Prince of Leinster.
117. Muiris (or Maurice): his son; living in 1314; had two sons - 1. Muirceartach, 2. Art (or Arthur).
118. Muirceartach: elder son of Muiris; Prince of Leinster; slain in 1307.
119. Art Mór Kavanagh: his son; Prince of Leinster; living in 1361; had two sons - 1. Donal Mór; and 2. Art Oge.
120. Art Oge: second son of Art Mór; living in 1417; Prince of Leinster; had two sons - 1. Gerald; and 2. Diarmuid Lamhdearg.
121. Diarmuid Lamhdearg (i.e. "Red Hand"): younger son of Art Oge: Lord of Leinster; d. 1417.
122. Diarmuid (2), of St. Malins: his son.
123. Art Buidhe, of St. Malins, and Poulmonty, co. Carlow: his son; Lord of Leinster.
124. Cahir MacArt: his son; Lord of Leinster; was created for life "Baron Ballyanne," 1554.
125. Brian: his son; Lord of Leinster; d. 1572.
126. Morgan: his son; Lord of Leinster; d. 1636.
127. Brian (2): his son; Lord of Leinster; d. 1662.
128. Morgan (2): his son; Lord of Leinster; died 1700.
129. Morgan (3): his son; died 1720; had issue.
130. Brian (3): son of Morgan; d. 1741.
131. Thomas: his son; d. 1789.
132. Thomas (2): his son; d. 1837.
133. Arthur MacMurrough Kavanagh, of Borris: his son; Chief of his name, born 25th March, 1831, and living in 1887.


Generation 1 to 59 are the same as for MacMurrough

60. Colethach Caol-bhreagh: son of Ugaine Mór; was the 69th Monarch; it is said, that, to secure the Throne, he assassinated his brother Laeghaire; after a long reign he was at length slain by Maion, his nephew, B.C. 541.
61. Melg Molbhthach: his son; was the 71st Monarch; was slain by Modhchorb, son of Cobhthach Caomh, of the Line of Heber Fionn, B.C. 541.
62. Iaran Gleofathach: his son; was the 74th Monarch; was a King of great justice and wisdom very well learned and possessed of many accomplishments; slain by Fear-Chorb, son of Modh-Chorb, B.C. 473.
63. Conla Caomh: his son; was the 74th Monarch of Ireland; died a natural death, B.C. 442.
64. Olioll Cas-fiachlach: his son; was the 77th Monarch; slain by his successor, Adhamhar Foltchaion, B.C. 417.
65. Eochaidh Alt-Leathan: his son; was the 79th Monarch; slain by Feargus Fortamhail, his successor, B.C. 395.
66. Aongus (or Æneas) Tuirmeach-Teamrach: his son; was the 81st Monarch; his son, Fiacha Firmara (so called from being exposed in a small boat on the sea) was ancestor of the Kings of Dalriada and Argyle in Scotland. This Aongus was slain at Tara (Teamhrach), B.C. 324.
67. Enna Aigneach: the legitimate son of Aongus; was the 84th Monarch; was of a very bountiful disposition, and exceedingly munificent in his donations. This King lost his life by the hands of Criomthan Cosgrach, B.C. 292.
68. Assaman Eamhna: his son; was excluded from the Throne by his father's murderer.
69. Roighen Ruadh: his son; in his time most of the cattle in Ireland died of murrain.
70. Fionnlogh: his son.
71. Fionn: his son; m. Benia, daughter of Criomthan; had two sons.
72. Eochaidh Feidlioch: his son; was the 93rd Monarch; m Clothfionn, daughter of Eochaidh Uchtleathan, who was a very virtuous lady. By him she had three children at a birth - Breas, Nar, and Lothar (the Fineamhas), who were slain at the battle of Dromchriadh; after their death, a melancholy settled on the Monarch, hence his name "Feidhlioch."
This Monarch caused the division of the Kingdom by Ugaine Mór into twenty-five parts, to cease; and ordered that the ancient Firvolgian division into Provinces should be resumed, viz., Two Munsters, Leinster, Conacht, and Ulster.
He also divided the government of these Provinces amongst his favourite courtiers: - Conacht he divided into three parts between Fiodhach, Eochaidh Allat, and Tinne, son of Conragh, son of Ruadhri Mór, No 62 on the "Line of Ir;" Ulster (Uladh) he gave to Feargus, the son of Leighe; Leinster he gave to Ros, the son of Feargus Fairge; and the two Munsters he gave to Tighernach Teadhbheamach and Deagbadah.
After this division of the Kingdom, Eochaidh proceeded to erect a Royal Palace in Conacht; this he built on Tinne's government in a place called Druin-na-n Druagh, now Craughan (from Craughan Crodhearg, Maedhbh's mother, to whom she gave the palace), but previously, Rath Eochaidh. About the same time he bestowed his daughter the Princess Maedhbh on Tinne, whom he constituted King of Conacht; Maedhbh being hereditary Queen of that Province.
After many years reign Tinne was slain by Maceacht (or Monaire) at Tara. After ten years' undivided reign, Queen Maedhbh married Oilioll Mór, son of Ros Ruadh, of Leinster, to whom she bore the seven Maine; Oilioll Mór was at length slain by Conall Cearnach, who was soon after killed by the people of Conacht. Maedhbh was at length slain by Ferbhuidhe, the son of Conor MacNeasa (Neasa was his mother); but in reality this Conor was the son of Fachtna Fathach, son of Cas, son of Ruadhri Mór, of the Line of Ir.
This Monarch, Eochaidh, died at Tara, B.C. 130.
73. Bress-Nar-Lothar: his son. In his time the Irish first dug graves beneath the surface to bury their dead; previously they laid the body on the surface and heaped stones over it. He had also been named Fineamhnas.
74. Lughaidh Sriabh-n Dearg: his son; was the 98th Monarch; he entered into an alliance with the King of Denmark, whose daughter, Dearborguill, he obtained as his wife; he killed himself by falling on his sword in the eighth year Before CHRIST.
75. Crimthann-Niadh-Nar: his son; who was the 100th Monarch of Ireland, and styled "The Heroic." It was in this Monarch's reign that our Lord and Saviour JESUS CHRIST was born.
Crimthann's death was occasioned by a fall from his horse, B.C. 9. Was married to Nar-Tath-Chaoch, daughter of Laoch, son of Daire, who lived in the land of the Picts (Scotland).
76. Feredach Fionn-Feachtnach: his son; was the 102nd Monarch. The epithet "feachtnach" was applied to this Monarch because of his truth and sincerity. In his reign lived Moran, the son of Maom, a celebrated Brehon, or Chief Justice of the Kingdom; it is said that he was the first who wore the wonderful collar called Iodhain Morain; this collar possessed a wonderful property: - if the judge who wore it attempted to pass a false judgment it would immediately contract, so as nearly to stop his breathing; but if he reversed such false sentence the collar would at once enlarge itself, and hang loose around his neck. This collar was also caused to be worn by those who acted as witnesses, so as to test the accuracy of their evidence. This Monarch, Feredach, died a natural death at the regal city at Tara, A.D. 36.
77. Fiacha Fionn Ola: his son; was the 104th Monarch; reigned 17 years, and was (A.D. 56) slain by Eiliomh MacConrach, of the Race of Ir, who succeeded him on the throne. This Fiacha was married to Eithne, daughter of the King of Alba; whither, being near her confinement at the death of her husband, she went, and was there delivered of a son, who was named Tuathal.
78. Tuathal Teachtmar: that son; was the 106th Monarch of Ireland. When Tuathal came of age, he got together his friends, and, with what aid his grandfather the king of Alba gave him, came into Ireland and fought and overcame his enemies in twenty-five battles in Ulster, twenty-five in Leinster, as many in Connaught, and thirty-five in Munster. And having thus restored the true royal blood and heirs to their respective provincial kingdoms, he thought fit to take, as he accordingly did with their consent, fron each of the four divisions or provinces Munster, Leinster, Connaught, and Ulster, a considerable tract of ground which was the next adjoining to Uisneach (where Tuathal had a palace): one east, another west, a third south, and a fourth on the north of it; and appointed all four (tracts of ground so taken from the four provinces) under the name of Midhe or "Meath" to belong for ever after to the Monarch's own peculiar demesne for the maintenance of his table; on each of which several portions he built a royal palace for himself and his heirs and successors; for every of which portions the Monarch ordained a certain chiefry or tribute to be yearly paid to the provincial Kings from whose provinces the said portions were taken, which may be seen at large in the Chronicles. It was this Monarch that imposed the great and insupportable fine (or "Eric") of 6,000 cows or beeves, as many fat muttons, (as many) hogs, 6,000 mantles, 6,000 ounces (or "Uinge") of silver, and 12,000 (others have it 6,000) cauldrons or pots of brass, to be paid every second year by the province of Leinster to the Monarchs of Ireland for ever, for the death of his only two daughters Fithir and Darina. (See Paper "Ancient Leinster Tributes," in the Appendix). This tribute was punctually taken and exacted, sometimes by fire and sword, during the reigns of forty Monarchs of Ireland upwards of six hundred years, until at last remitted by Finachta Fleadhach, the 153rd Monarch of Ireland, and the 26th Christian Monarch, at the request and earnest solicitation of St. Moling. At the end of thirty years' reign, the Monarch Tuathal was slain by his successor Mal, A.D. 106.
This Monarch erected Royal Palace at Tailtean; around the grave of Queen Tailte he caused the Fairs to be resumed on La Lughnasa (Lewy's Day), to which were brought all of the youth of both sexes of a suitable age to be married, at which Fair the marriage articles were agreed upon, and the ceremony performed.
Tuathal married Baine, the daughter of Sgaile Balbh, King of England.
79. Fedhlimidh (Felim) Rachtmar: his son; was so called as being a maker of excellent wholesome laws, among which he established with all firmness that of "Retaliation;" kept to it inviolably; and by that means preserved the people in peace, quiet, plenty, and security during his time. This Felim was the 108th Monarch; reigned nine years; and, after all his pomp and greatness, died of thirst, A.D. 119. He married Ughna, daughter of the King of Denmark.
80. Conn Ceadcathach (or Conn of the Hundred Battles); his son; This Conn was so called from hundreds of battles by him fought and won: viz., sixty battles against Cahir Mór, King of Leinster and the 109th Monarch of Ireland, whom he slew and succeeded in the Monarchy; one hundred battles against the Ulsterians; and one hundred more in Munster against Owen Mór (or Mogha Nua-Dhad), their King, who, notwithstanding, forced the said Conn to an equal division of the Kingdom with him. He had two brothers - 1. Eochaidh Fionn-Fohart, 2. Fiacha Suidhe, who, to make way for themselves, murdered two of their brother's sons named Conla Ruadh and Crionna; but they were by the third son Art Eanfhear banished, first into Leinster, and then into Munster, where they lived near Cashel. They were seated at Deici Teamhrach (now the barony of Desee in Meath), whence they were expelled by the Monarch Cormac Ulfhada, son of Art; and, after various wanderings, they went to Munster where Oilioll Olum, who was married to Sadhbh, daughter of Conn of the Hundred Battles, gave them a large district of the present county of Waterford, a part of which is still called Na-Deiseacha, or the baronies of Desies. They were also given the country comprised in the present baronies of Clonmel, Upper-Third, and Middle-Third, in the co. Tipperary, which they held till the Anglo-Norman Invasion. From Eochaidh Fionn-Fohart decended O'Nowlan or Nolan of Fowerty (or Foharta), in Lease (or Leix), and Saint Bridget; and from Fiacha Suidhe are O'Dolan, O'Brick of Dunbrick, and O'Faelan of Dun Faelan, near Cashel. Conn of the Hundred Battles had also three daughters: 1. Sadhbh, who m. first, MacNiadh, after whose death she m. Oilioll Olum, King of Munster. (See No. 84 on the "Line of Heber"); 2. Maoin; and 3. Sarah (or Sarad), m. to Conan MacMogha Laine. - (See No. 81. infra).
Conn reigned 35 years; but was at length barbarously slain by Tiobraidhe Tireach, son of Mal, son of Rochruidhe, King of Ulster. This murder was committed in Tara, A.D. 157, when Conn chanced to be alone and unattended by his guards; the assassins were fifty ruffians, disguised as women, whom the King of Ulster employed for the purpose.
81. Art Eanfhear ("art:" Irish, a bear, a stone; noble, great, generous; hardness, cruelty. "Ean:" Irish, one; "fhear," "ar," the man; Gr. "Ar," The Man, or God of War): son of Conn of the Hundred Fights; a quo O'h-Airt, anglicised O'Hart. This Art, who was the 112th Monarch of Ireland, had three sisters - one of whom Sarad was the wife of Conaire Mac Mogha Laine, the 111th Monarch, by whom she had three sons called the "Three Cairbres," viz. - 1. Cairbre (alias Eochaidh) Riada - a quo "Dalriada," in Ireland, and in Scotland; 2. Cairbre Bascaon; 3. Cairbre Musc, who was the ancestor of O'Falvey, lords of Corcaguiney, etc. Sabina (or Sadhbh), another sister, was the wife of MacNiadh [nia], half King of Munster (of the Sept of Lughaidh, son of Ithe), by whom she had a son named Maccon; and by her second husband Olioll Olum she had nine sons, seven whereof were slain by their half brother Maccon, in the famous battle of Magh Mucroimhe [muccrove], in the county of Galway, where also the Monarch Art himself fell, siding with his brother-in-law Olioll Olum against the said Maccon, after a reign of thirty years, A.D. 195. This Art was married to Maedhbh, Leathdearg, the daughter of Conann Cualann; from this Queen, Rath Maedhbhe, near Tara, obtained its name.
82. Cormac Ulfhada: son of Art Eanfhear; m. Eithne, daughter of Dunlang, King of Leinster; had three elder brothers - 1. Artghen, 2. Boindia, 3. Bonnrigh. He had also six sons - 1. Cairbre Lifeachar, 2. Muireadach, 3. Moghruith, 4. Ceallach, 5. Daire, 6. Aongus Fionn: Nos. 4 and 5 left no issue. King Cormac Mac Art was the 115th Monarch of Ireland; and was called "Ulfhada," because of his long beard. He was the wisest, most learned, and best of any of the Milesian race before him, that ruled the Kingdom. He ordained several good laws; wrote several learned treatises, among which his treatise on "Kingly Government," directed to his son Carbry Liffechar, is extant and extraordinary. He was very magnificent in his housekeeping and attendants, having always one thousand one hundred and fifty persons in his daily retinue constantly attending at his Great Hall at Tara; which was three hundred feet long, thirty cubits high, and fifty cubits broad, with fourteen doors to it. His daily service of plate, flagons, drinking cups of gold, silver., and precious stone, at his table, ordinarily consisted of one hundred and fifty pieces, besides dishes, etc., which were all pure silver or gold. He ordained that ten choice persons should constantly attend him and his successors - Monarchs of Ireland, and never to be absent from him, viz. - 1. A nobleman to be his companion; 2. A judge to deliver and explain the laws of the country in the King's presence upon all occasions; 3. An antiquary or historiographer to declare and preserve the genealogies, acts, and occurrences of the nobility and gentry from time to time as occasion required; 4. A Druid or Magician to offer sacrifice, and presage good or bad omens, as his learning, skill, or knowledge would enable him; 5. A poet to praise or dispraise every one according to his good or bad actions; 6. A physician to administer physic to the king and queen, and to the rest of the (royal) family; 7. A musician to compose music, and sing pleasant sonnets in the King's presence when there-unto disposed; and 8, 9, and 10, three Stewards to govern the King's House in all things appertaining thereunto. This custom was observed by all the succeeding Monarchs down to Brian Boromha [Boru], the 175th Monarch of Ireland, and the 60th down from Cormac, without any alteration only that since they received the Christian Faith they changed the Druid or Magician for a Prelate of the Church.
What is besides delivered from antiquity of this great Monarch is, that (which among the truly wise is more valuable than any worldly magnificence or secular glory whatsoever) he was to all mankind very just, and so upright in his actions, judgments, and laws, that God revealed unto him the light of His Faith seven years before his death; and from thenceforward he refused his Druids to worship their idol-gods, and openly professed he would no more worship any but the true God of the Universe, the Immortal and Invisible King of Ages. Whereupon the Druids sought his destruction, which they soon after effected (God permitting it) by their adjurations and ministry of damned spirits choking him as he sat at dinner eating of salmon, some say by a bone of the fish sticking in his throat, A.D. 266, after he had reigned forty years. Of the six sons of Cormac Mac Art, no issue is recorded from any [of them], but from Cairbre-Lifeachar; he had also ten daughters, but there is no account of any of them only two - namely, Grace (or Grania), and Ailbh [alve], who were both successively the wives of the great champion and general of the Irish Militia, Fionn, the son of Cubhall [Coole]. The mother of Cormac MacArt was Eachtach, the daughter of Ulcheatagh.
Cormac was married to Eithne Ollamhdha, daughter of Dunlang, son of Eana Niadh; she was fostered by Buiciodh Brughach, in Leinster.
83. Cairbre-Lifeachar, the 117th Monarch of Ireland: son of King Cormac Mac Art; was so called from his having been nursed by the side of the Liffey, the river on which Dublin is built. His mother was Eithne, daughter of Dunlong, King of Leinster. He had three sons - 1. Eochaidh Dubhlen; 2. Eocho; and 3. Fiacha Srabhteine, who was the 120th Monarch of Ireland, and the ancestor of O'Neill, Princes of Tyrone. Fiacha Srabhteine was so called, from his having been fostered at Dunsrabhteine, in Connaught; of which province he was King, before his elevation to the Monarchy. After seventeen years' reign, the Monarch Cairbre Lifeachar was slain at the battle of Gabhra [Gaura], A.D. 284, by Simeon, the son of Ceirb, who came from the south of Leinster to this battle, fought by the Militia of Ireland, who were called the Fiana Erionn (or Fenians), and arising from a quarrel which happened between the; in which the Monarch, taking part with one side against the other, lost his life.
84. Fiacha Srabhteine, King of Conacht, and the 120th Monarch of Ireland: son of Cairbre-Liffechar; married Aoife, daughter of the King of Gall Gaodhal. This Fiacha, after 37 years' reign, was, in the battleof Dubhcomar, A.D. 322, slain by his nephews, the Three Collas, to make room for Colla Uais, who seized on, and kept, the Monarchy for four years. From those three Collas the "Clan Colla" were so called.
85. Muireadach Tireach: son of Fiacha Srabhteine; m. Muirion, daughter of Fiachadh, King of Ulster; and having, in A.D. 326, fought and defeated Colla Uais, and banished him and his two brothers into Scotland, regained his father's Throne, which he kept as the 122nd Monarch for 30 years.
86. Eochaidh Muigh-Meadhoin [Moyvone]: his son; was the 124th Monarch; and in the 8th year of his reign died a natural death at Tara, A.D. 365; leaving issue four sons, viz., by his first wife Mong Fionn: - I. Brian; II. Fiachra; III. Olioll; IV. Fergus. And, by his second wife, Carthan Cais Dubh (or Carinna), daughter of the Celtic King of Britain, - V. Niall Mór, commonly called "Niall of the Nine Hostages." Mong Fionn was daughter of Fiodhach, and sister of Crimthann, King of Munster, of the Heberian Sept, and successor of Eochaidh in the Monarchy. This Crimthann was poisoned by his sister Mong-Fionn, in hopes that Brian, her eldest son by Eochaidh, would succeed in the Monarchy. To avoid suspicion she herself drank of the same poisoned cup which she presented to her brother; but, notwithstanding that she lost her life by so doing, yet her expectations were not realised, for the said Brian and her other three sons by the said Eochaidh were laid aside (whether out of horror of the mother's inhumanity in poisoning her brother, or otherwise, is not known), and the youngest son of Eochaidh, by Carthan Cais Dubh, was preferred to the Monarchy. I. Brian, from him were descended the Kings, nobility and gentry of Conacht - Tirloch Mór O'Connor, the 121st, and Roderic O'Connor, the 183rd Monarch of Ireland. II. Fiachra's descendants gave their name to Tir-Fiachra ("Tireragh"), co. Sligo, and possessed also parts of co. Mayo. III. Olioll's descendants settled in Sligo - in Tir Oliolla (or Tirerill). This Fiachra had five sons: - 1. Earc Cuilbhuide; 2. Breasal; 3. Conaire; 4. Feredach (or Dathi); and 5. Amhalgaidh.
87. Brian: eldest son of Eochaidh Muigh-Meadhoin [Moyvane], the 124th Monarch of Ireland.
88. Duach Galach: his youngest son; the first Christian King of Connaught. His brothers, who left any issue, were Conall Orison, ArcaDearg, and Aongus, etc.
89. Eoghan Sreibh: son of Duach; the fifth Christian King of that province.
90. Muireadach: his son.
91. Fergus: his son.
92. Eochaidh Tiormach: his son. Had two younger brothers - 1. Feargna, who was the ancestor of O'Rourke, etc.; 2. Duach-Teang-Umh, who was the ancestor of O'Flaherty, and MacHugh (of Connaught), etc.
93. Aodh (or Hugh) Abrad: son of Eochaidh; was the eighth Christian King.
94. Uadach: his son; the ninth King. Had a brother named Cuornan.
95. Raghallach: son of Uadach; was the 11th King.
96. Fergus: his son.
97. Muireadach Maolleathan: his son; the 16th King.
98. Inreachtach: his son; was the 17th King. Had two brothers - 1. Cathal, 2. Conbhach.
99. Aodh Balbh ("balbh:" Irish stammering, dumb; Lat. "balb-us"): son of Inreactha, the 23rd Christian King of Connaught. Some say that this Aodh Balbh was the 26th King, instead of Flaithrigh (2).
100. Uadhach: son of Aodh Balbh; a quo Clann Uadhaigh.
101. Ubhan ("ubh:" Irish, the point of a thing): his son; a quo O'h-Ubhain, anglicised Hoban. Had a brother named Ceannfada, who was the ancestor of Fallon.
102. Cineadh: son of Ubhan.
103. Muireadhach ("muireadhach:" Irish, a lord): son of Cineadh; a quo O'Muireadhaigh, na-Haidnighe - O'Murray.
104. Muircheartach: his son.
105. Dubhslatch: his son.
106. Britriabhach: his son.
107. Conghalach: his son.
108. Giolla Calma: his son.
109. Conghalach: his son.
110. Giolla Calma: his son.
111. Conghalach: his son.
112. Giollachriosd: his son.