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O'Reilly, Reilly, Riley.

Arms of O'Reilly of Ireland

Arms of Riley of Forest Hill, Windsor, England

"Come back Paddy Reilly to Ballyjamesduff - come home Paddy Reilly to me", lines from the song by Percy French, pinpoint the original territory of the great sept of O Raghailligh in County Cavan or the ancient area known as Breffny or in Irish Breifne. The name literally meaning "descendant of Raghallach", was until recently much more commonly found in English without the prefix O. Reilly and O'Reilly constitute one of the most numerous names in Ireland, being among the first dozen in the list. The bulk of these come from Cavan and adjoining counties, the area to which they belong by origin, for they were for centuries the most powerful sept in Breffny, their head being chief of Breffny-O'Reilly and for a long time in the middle ages his influence extended well into Meath and Westmeath. At the present time we find them very numerous still in Breffny, heading as they do the county list both in Cavan and Longford. In 1878 O'Reilly landlords possessed over 30,000 acres. The name has also become Riley, especially in England. Other variant forms include O'Rahilly, O'Rielly, Rahilly, Raleigh, Reyley, Rielly, Radley, Ridley, Ryley, and Reillé, though a number of these forms have quite different origins. The individual who gave the sept its name was one Raghallach ("ragh:" Irish, a race; "ceallach," gregarious) was slain at the Battle of Clontarf, 1014, alongside the High King of Ireland, Brian Boru. Raghallach himself was of the same stock as the O'Rourkes and therefore of the line of the great O'Connor kings of Connacht.

The O'Reilly chiefs were inaugurated on the Hill of Seantoman or Shantoman between Cavan and Ballyhaise, on the summit of which may still be seen the remains of a Druidical temple consisting of several huge stones standing upright and known as Fionn McCool's fingers. In later times they were inaugurated on the Hill of Tullymongan, above the town of Cavan; and took the tribe name of Muintir Maolmordha or the People of Maolmordha, one of their celebrated chiefs. This name Maolmordha or Mulmora was Latinized "Milesius" and anglicised "Miles" or "Myles," - a favourite personal name among the members of the sept. The patron saint of this family was St. Maedoc.

The O'Reillys were for centuries the ruling family of the kingdom of East Breffny, and at their height controlled most of Co. Cavan and large parts of Co. Meath. The family was widely involved in trade in medieval Ireland and at one time 'reilly' was a term for Irish money, subsequently banned by the English. It has also been suggested that they lived well, as the phrase 'the life of Reilly' indicates. They were also notable as ecclesiastics, the family, since the sixteenth century, providing five Primates of All-Ireland, five bishops of Kilmore, two of Clogher and one of Derry.

Reilly is among the first fifteen names in both Ulster and all of Ireland. It is the single most numerous name in its homeland of Co. Cavan and also in Co. Longford, seventh in Co. Fermanagh and thirteenth in Co. Monaghan, and is found in every county in Ireland.

In 1237 Cathal O Reilly, Prince of Breifne, founded the monastery of Lough Oughter. The Franciscan abbey there was founded in 1300 by Giolla Iosa Ruadh O Reilly and it contains the tombs of several O Reillys. From AD 243 to 1523, there were 39 O Reilly abbots at Kells, County Meath. Saint Oliver Plunket, canonized in 1975, is among their family connections. Since the sixteenth century, five O Reilly bishops have held the primacy of Armagh, as well as five other bishoprics.

The chief fortress of the Breifne O Reillys was on Tullymongan Hill, just outside the town of Cavan. The ruins of the O Reilly castle of Cloughoughter can be seen on a small island on Lough Erne. It was here that Owen Roe O Neill, an O Reilly kinsman, died in 1649. A few years later the Cromwellians destroyed the castle.

The chief of this numerous sept was styled Breifne O Reilly. When the Breifne O Reilly's were driven from their lands, as aristocrats they could offer credentials as exalted as any demanded by the courts of Europe for senior service in their armies. Few other families can boast such variety in the spelling of their name. There are at least seventeen different dialectical variations, including Oreigle, Oragill, Oreille, Orely. The countries in which they settled transformed their name to accord with local pronunciations, for example, Orely in Spain, Oreille in France.

Among the folk heroes of Cavan is Myles O'Reilly, better known as Myles the Slasher. In 1641, the whole of Cavan had fallen to the insurgents under Philip McHugh O'Reilly and Mulmore or Myles O'Reilly who styled himself sheriff of the county. Only two garrisons at Keelagh and Croghan continued to hold out. Sir Francis Hamilton had 200 foot and six horse, three barrels of powder and provisions for six months at Keelagh. Both castles became places of refuge for fugitive English and Scots settlers fleeing from Leitrim and west Cavan. The defense of the castles was hampered by the presence of 700 refugees at Keelagh and 120 at Croghan. Myles sent his father Edmund, to take the two castles. He was joined by a force of the O'Rourkes from Carrigallen and Ballinamore so that together they made up 2,000 men. Hamilton heard of their advance and to prevent them occupying Killeshandra town he had it burned to the ground. He knew that the insurgents could not face the cold of winter in the open.

In a skirmish near Keelagh castle, Edmund O'Reilly was repulsed and Loughlin O'Rourke and Brian O'Rourke were taken prisoners. They were promptly exchanged for Bishop Bedell, Protestant Bishop of Kilmore, his son and his son-in-law, Mr. Clogy, who were prisoners at Loch Uachtair Castle. To prevent the insurgents taking refuge in the woods around, Hamilton burned the country for a radius of three miles around the castle. In another skirmish Fr O'Rourke, a friar, was killed in his habit while leading the rebels and two important men, Owen O'Rourke and Philip O'Reilly, were captured and held as hostages.

When Myles O'Reilly heard of his father's failure to take the castles he withdrew from the siege of Drogheda and marched to Cavan. He was joined by a force from Leitrim and by 300 men under Robert Nugent of Westmeath. Once again the rebels were driven off after a skirmish at Windmill Hill near the town. Myles O'Reilly was so annoyed at his failure to take the castles that he went to Belturbet and had 60 English settlers who had been allowed to stay on in the town thrown from Belturbet bridge into the Erne. In revenge for this Sir Francis Hamilton went to Derewily on the Leitrim border with 100 foot and 30 horse. He surprised 60 natives in a wood there at dawn, killed 27 of them and hanged fourteen others.

The insurgents, who found it impossible to capture strong castles for want of artillery, decided to surround the castles and reduce them by starvation. By March 1642 supplies in both castles were running down. They had lost all contact with the outside world and were hopelessly abandoned. On 8 April, Sir James Craige died. His castle was wasted by disease - one hundred and sixty died of hunger and disease and the remainder were too weak to defend the castle. Hamilton was forced to take on the defence of both castles. A number of men were sent in turn each day to defend Croghan. They could not stay in the castle lest they take the disease. On 4 May the Irish were told of the plight of both garrisons by a fugitive called Barlow who fled from Keelagh to the enemy. They decided to make another attempt to take the castles. Two thousand men under Colonel Philip Mac Hugh O'Reilly drew up before both castles. They cut off the water supply from Croghan by throwing a dead dog and the body of a man into the well which supplied it. The inhabitants were dying of thirst. In Castle-Hamilton or Keelagh the position was little better. They killed their milch cows first, then their horses and dogs and finally were forced to eat hides of animals killed months before. The soldiers began to mutiny and six or seven of them fled to the enemy. Sir Francis himself was sick. He was forced to surrender and an agreement was drawn up between the O'Reillys and the O'Rourkes on one side and Sir Francis Hamilton, Sir Arthur Forbes, Master Bedell and Master Price on the other. The Irish agreed to let the garrisons go free to Drogheda and guaranteed them protection on the way. Sir Francis Hamilton marched out from Keelagh Castle on 15 June 1642. They marched away for Drogheda, with matches burning, banliers full, drums beating and colours flying, and under escort by the O'Reillys.

Myles the Slasher died - defending the bridge at Finea, in 1644. His son Colonel John Reilly lived at Baltrasna, in Co Meath and is said to be the first member of the sept to drop the "O" prefix from the name. He was elected a knight of the shire of Cavan at parliament in May 1689. He raised a regiment of Dragoons for King James. He served in the Jacobite army in the Williamite war, fought at the siege of Derry, the Boyne and Aughrim. He was one of three individuals who was specifically mentioned in the military articles, of the treaty of Limerick, and as a result he was allowed to keep his land. He died in Feb, 1717 and is buried at Kill. John left a son, Thomas, who was father of Alexander who we will mention again in a moment.

Is any other Irish name found more frequently in the army lists of Europe? In the 1700s, Colonel Edmond O Reilly had no less than 33 O Reilly officers under his command, while Colonel Mahon had sixteen in his. In the complicated religious and territorial wars of two centuries ago, there is no doubt that O Reillys fought on every side: French, Austrian, Prussian, Spanish, Italian and Russian. They were professional soldiers who preferred to put their swords at the disposal of the monarchs of Europe than to fight for the colonisers who had overrun their country.

The exploits of the O Reillys abroad span many continents. Count Alexander O Reilly (1722-94) was born in Baltrasna, County Meath, and fought for Spain with the Irish Brigade. He was a Field Marshal and Governor of Madrid, Captain General of Andalusia and Governor of Cadiz. "Was it for this that General Count O Reilly, who took Algiers, declared I used him vilely?" is asked in Byron's poem Don Juan. "General Count O Reilly did not take Algiers", writes Lord Byron, "Algiers very nearly took him". His failure to capture Algiers in 1775 had been a great humiliation.

In 1769, Count Alexander O Reilly sailed for New Orleans with a strong military force. His affability allayed all suspicion and, after investigating the popular leaders, he invited them to a reception where he had them arrested. Five were put to death and others were imprisoned in Havana, which put an end to the revolution. Count O Reilly's rule was regarded as liberal and enlightened. He had such a high regard for his Irish heritage that, not long before he died, he sent home 1000 guineas to have an Irish genealogist set out his pedigree for him. Descendants of the O Reillys of Baltrasna have been in Cuba for two centuries where, as Counts of Castillo and Marquis of San Felipe y Santiago, their lineage is to be found in the archives of Havana. One of Havana's main streets is the Calle Orely. There are also streets in Madrid, Barcelona and Cadiz bearing their name. It was an O Reilly of the St Patrick's Brigade in Mexico who induced Texas, in the 1840s, to join the USA.

Colonel Myles O Reilly fought courageously as a cavalry officer during the terrible war from 1641 to 1653, when the old Gaelic Ireland was crumbling and its soldiers were being driven abroad. He too was forced to flee, but he received high honours and distinctions from the King of Spain as well as from the French monarch. Leaving France for Flanders to serve as Maestro di Campo, he fell suddenly ill and died. A descendant of his, Captain Cyril Beresford Mandy of England, whose mother was an O Reilly, donated a wealth of family papers and portraits to Trinity College, Dublin.

Hugh Reilly of Cavan supported the luckless Stuarts. He was Master of Chancery and Clerk of the King's Council for Ireland under James II, and followed him into exile. In 1693, he published 'Ireland's Case Briefly Stated', which had a wide circulation during the penal times. It was the only published history of Ireland written by an Irishman at that time.

Count Andrew O Reilly of County Westmeath was a Field Marshal in Empress Maria Theresa's Austrian army. He fought a duel and killed his opponent to win his wife, a Bohemian heiress. He gained battle honours at Marengo and Austerlitz. In 1809, when he was Governor of Vienna, he had the humiliation of having to surrender the city to Napoleon. He completed his Austrian service as Chamberlain to the Emperor.

Sir John O Reilly, 3rd Baronet, born in 1800, entered the Austrian service, where he became Major of the Hungarian Hussars and Chamberlain to the Emperor. In 1845 he returned with his wife, Maria Roche, to his Ballinlough home where their first son, Hugh, was born (the first O Reilly to be born there in more than 100 years).

The O Reillys suffered greatly for their Catholic faith during the penal times, and those who managed to retain their houses and land became targets of anti-landlordism in the nineteenth century and the anti-Ascendancy nationalists of the twentieth century who ignorantly believed that all the fine houses were British-owned. Ballinlough Castle in Clonmellon is over seven hundred years old and has evolved from fortress to castle to mansion. In 1812, as part of a marriage settlement, Hugh Andrew O Reilly (b. 1795) changed his name to Nugent. A measure of Catholic emancipation had recently been conceded and Ballinlough was able to continue as one of the rare Irish houses still owned by the Irish Catholic aristocracy. In the 1930s, Sir John's great-grandson, Sir Hugh Nugent (1 904-83), with Lady Nugent, rescued it from demolition by the Irish Land Commission. They restored it to its original grandeur and preserved a wealth of O Reilly memorabilia, including a contemporary portrait of Count Andrew O Reilly. Conscious of the ancient O Reilly lineage, the present Nugent owners like to make a pun about their being "New Gents".

John Roberts O Reilly (1808-73) was one of the Meath O Reillys. He lost his eyesight in a naval battle, but, despite his blindness, he entered the coastguard service and saved many people from shipwreck. He invented the distress flare, for which he was made a naval knight of Windsor.

John Boyle O Reilly (1844-90), poet, novelist and Fenian, was born at Dowth, near Drogheda in County Louth. At the age of eleven he was an apprentice printer with a local newspaper. Later he joined the Fenians and enlisted in the British army in Dublin intending to persuade serving Irishmen to join the Fenians. He was discovered and imprisoned, and spent a year in solitary confinement. In 1867, he was transported to Australia and, two years later, he escaped from a road gang and sailed to the United States, where he settled in Boston and married an Irishwoman. He became joint proprietor of the Pilot, a newspaper which attracted contributors as distinct and varied as Lady Wilde and W. B. Yeats. An accidental overdose of sleeping tablets led to his premature death.

Christopher O Reilly (1835-1910), born in Ballybeg, County Meath, emigrated to Victoria in 1854, and went from there to Tasmania. A mining engineer and farmer, he called his estate at Scotsdale, Brefney, to remind his family of his ancient Irish lineage. He became a politician and was elected to the Tasmanian Parliament's House of Assembly in 1906.

The O Reillys were, and still are, prominent financiers. In the fifteenth century they created their own coinage, by "clipping" English coins - a form of counterfeiting which was later outlawed. The memory of this rebellious enterprise remains in the language. People living remarkably well are described as "living the life of Reilly", or, in the opposite context, there is the man "who hasn't a Reilly to his name". The warrior O Reillys of Ireland have long since diverted their energies into commerce, and, though they no longer manufacture their own coinage, they could be said to generate it!

Frank O Reilly (b. 1922) is a director of the Irish Distillers Group. Graduating from Trinity College, Dublin, in engineering, he joined the family firm of John Power & Sons. He was instrumental in merging Ireland's three main whiskey-distilling companies in 1966. He is also chairman of the Ulster Bank and a director of the National Westminster Bank.

A.J.F. (Tony) O Reilly was born in Dublin in 1936. Tony O Reilly, of the unbeatable Lions rugby tour of the 1960s, qualified as a solicitor and, following experience in a variety of industries, became president and chief executive officer of Heinz in 1979. He divides his time between Pittsburgh and his Irish home at Castlemartin, a historic County Kildare mansion. He has also initiated a philanthropic Irish American Association.

There are also prominent O Reillys in England. Sir Patrick D'Arcy O Reilly was a diplomat who was British Ambassador to Russia from 1957 to 1960. Afterwards he was appointed chairman of the Banque Nationale de Paris.

Paul O Reilly (b. 1912), son of Professor Sir Charles O Reilly, former head of Liverpool's School of Architecture, was in the vanguard of post-war British design. In recognition of his work, he was created a life peer in 1978.

On the whole, the O Reillys mostly emigrated to Europe, but several have also made their mark in the USA. Henry O Reilly (1806-86), who emigrated from Carrickmacross in County Monaghan to New York, was a pioneer in the development of telegraphic communication. He edited a variety of newspapers while still very young. He campaigned for the improvement of the Erie Canal, but was frustrated by the outbreak of the Civil War. With financial backing he later erected 8,000 miles of telegraph line, part of a scheme to link Pennsylvania with St Louis on the Great Lakes, but litigation and technical problems sank this promising enterprise.

Alexander O Reilly (1845-1912), descendant and namesake of the Austrian Field Marshal from Baltrasna in County Meath whose descendants are now Spanish, was born in Philadelphia. From 1902 to 1909 he was surgeon general to the US army. He was personal physician to President Cleveland. After the Spanish American war he helped reorganize the army medical system.


O'Reilly is occasionally found as a synonym of O'Rahilly, but this is merely an example of careless registration since O'Rahilly, which is O Raithile in Irish, has no connection with Breffny. It is true that the sept originated in Ulster but they have so long been associated with Co. Kerry and they must be regarded as Munstermen. Especially as Egan O'Rahilly (1670-1726) who was an outstanding poet who was born in County Kerry. He specialized in the genealogy of the leading families of Munster, glorifying them in his poems. During his lifetime the old Gaelic order was swept away, following William of Orange's suppression of the Irish at the battles of the Boyne, Athlone, Aughrim and Limerick. There was no longer any place for Irish literature, and O Rathaille endured fearful poverty, but continued to write poetry until his dying day.



Arms: Vert two lions rampant combatant Or supporting a dexter hand couped at the wrist erect and apaumee bloody proper.

Crest: Out of a ducal coronet an oak tree entwined with a serpent descendant all proper.

Motto: fortitudine et prudential [with fortitude and prudence].



The ancient genealogy of O'Reilly according to O'Hart's Irish Pedigrees.

"Irish Pedigrees or the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation", by John O'Hart is one of the best known Irish genealogical publications in the world. The first edition appeared in 1876, but was followed by several subsequent editions that added greatly to the overall size of the work. The most quoted edition was published in New York in 1923, twenty years after the author's death. It is worth mentioning here that the original work did not include and heraldic (coat of arms) information and that this was added to posthumous publications by unscrupulous publishers, presumably to increase sales. In general, O'Hart is a dubious source, at best, for such information.

John O'Hart was born in Crossmolina, Co. Mayo, in 1824. He received an excellent education with the intention of joining the priesthood. However, he instead spent two years in the constabulary (the police), after which he was employed by the Commissioners of National Education in Ireland from 1845, the first year of the Famine. He became an Associate in Arts at the Queen's University, and thereafter he was an active member of several scholarly societies. He was an avid genealogist and took a keen interest in Irish history, despite never receiving formal training as an historian. Politically he was an Irish nationalist, and in religious matters, a committed Catholic. Both of these factors permeated his work. He died in 1902 in Clontarf, Co. Dublin, at the age of 78.

O'Hart used many sources to compile the information that appears in his major work. His principal sources were Gaelic genealogies, like those of O'Clery, MacFirbis and O'Farrell. Along with the Gaelic annals, especially the Annals of the Four Masters, O'Hart was able to 'reconstruct' the medieval and ancient pedigree that appears here. He also used later sources, like the works of Burke, Collins, Harris, Lodge and Ware to extend these lineages into the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. But arguably the most important information contained in these genealogies came where O'Hart gathered the details directly from the families concerned, often from private papers or family tradition.

Irish mythology records that every family was descended from a certain Milesius of Spain who in about 500 BC led his followers to invade and conquer Ireland. The Christian monks who wrote these genealogies down in the 9th century, 2,500 years after Milesius, also added their own beliefs. So they recorded that Milesius was the 36th in descent from Adam! O'Hart, being both an ardent believer in the Gaelic myths and Christianity, followed their example. In his Gaelic genealogies a number representing the generation of descent from Adam precedes every generation. O'Hart showed, probably incorrectly, that every Gaelic family was descended from four of Milesius's family. These were his three sons, Heber, Ir and Heremon, and his uncle Ithe. These four were considered the 'stem' lines of the genealogies that followed. The latest scientiific evidence suggests that while the Celts had an overwhelming cultural influence on Ireland, the numbers of them that invaded Ireland were not all that huge and from the genetic point of view they are just a part of the mix that made up the Irish population.

While he undertook a great deal of research, using the majority of available published sources, many Gaelic scholars have superseded his work over the last 100 years. He was not familiar with the abundant unpublished Gaelic manuscript sources available. These have shown that many of his genealogies are incorrect for the years prior to 1600 AD. Furthermore, O'Hart was not a professional historian or genealogist, and had little training in using the esoteric sources he consulted. As a consequence he misunderstood a great deal about Gaelic society and culture, a world which had largely disappeared from Ireland long before he put pen to paper. He was also credulous in using the sources he did consult, believing that the myths were fact.

In short, while the pedigree below is interesting, it should be be read with a sceptical eye, and the further back you go, the more sceptical your eye should become.

1. Adam

2. Seth

3. Enos

4. Cainan

5. Mahalaleel

6. Jared

7. Enoch

8. Methuselah

9. Lamech

10. Noah divided the world amongst his three sons, begotten of his wife Titea: viz., to Shem he gave Asia, within the Euphrates, to the Indian Ocean; to Ham he gave Syria, Arabia, and Africa; and to Japhet, the rest of Asia beyond the Euphrates, together with Europe to Gadea (or Cadiz).

11. Japhet was the eldest son of Noah. He had fifteen sons, amongst whom he divided Europe and the part of Asia which his father had allotted to him.

12. Magog: From whom descended the Parthians, Bactrians, Amazons, etc.; Parthalon, the first planter of Ireland, about three hundred years after the Flood; and also the rest of the colonies that planted there, viz., the Nemedians, who planted Ireland, Anno Mundi three thousand and forty-six, or three hundred and eighteen years after the birth of Abraham, and two thousand one hundred and fifty-three years before Christ. The Nemedians continued in Ireland for two hundred and seventeen years; within which time a colony of theirs went into the northern parts of Scotland, under the conduct of their leader Briottan Maol, from whom Britain takes its name, and not from "Brutus," as some persons believed. From Magog were also descended the Belgarian, Belgian, Firbolgian or Firvolgian colony that succeeded the Nemedians, Anno Mundi, three thousand two hundred and sixty-six, and who first erected Ireland into a Monarchy. [According to some writers, the Fomorians invaded Ireland next after the Nemedians.] This Belgarian of Firvolgian colony continued in Ireland for thirty-six years, under nine of their Kings; when they were supplanted by the Tuatha-de-Danann (which means, according to some authorities, "the people of the god Dan," whom they adored), who possessed Ireland for one hundred and ninety-seven years, during the reigns of nine of their kings; and who were then conquered by the Gaelic, Milesian, or Scotic Nation (the three names by which the Irish people were known), Anno Mundi three thousand five hundred. This Milesian or Scotic Irish Nation possessed and enjoyed the Kingdom of Ireland for two thousand eight hundred and eighty-five years, under one hundred and eighty-three Monarchs; until their submission to King Henry the Second of England, Anno Domini one thousand one hundred and eighty-six.

13. Boath, one of the sons of Magog; to whom Scythia came as his lot, upon the division of the Earth by Noah amongst his sons, and by Japhet of his part thereof amongst his sons.

14. Phœniusa Farsaidh (or Fenius Farsa) was King of Scythia, at the time when Ninus ruled the Assyrian Empire; and, being a wise man and desirous to learn the languages that not long before confounded the builders of the Tower of Babel, employed able and learned men to go among the dispersed multitude to learn their several languages; who sometime after returning well skilled in what they went for, Phœniusa Farsaidh erected a school in the valley of Senaar, near the city of Æothena, in the forty-second year of the reign of Ninus; whereupon, having continued there with his younger son Niul for twenty years, he returned home to his kingdom, which, at his death, he left to the oldest son Nenuall; leaving to Niul no other patrimony than his learning and the benefit of the said school.

15. Niul, after his father returned to Scythia, continued some time at œothena, teaching the languages and other laudable sciences, until upon report of his great learning he was invited into Egypt by Pharaoh, the King; who gave him the land of Campus Cyrunt, near the Red Sea to inhabit, and his daughter Scota in marriage; from whom their posterity are ever since called Scots; but, according to some annalists, the name "Scots" is derived from the word Scythia. It was this Niul that employed Gaodhal [Gael], son of Ethor, a learned and skilful man, to compose or rather refine and adorn the language, called Bearla Tobbai, which was common to all Niul's posterity, and afterwards called Gaodhilg (or Gaelic), from the said Gaodhal who composed or refined it; and for his sake also Niul called his own eldest son "Gaodhal."

16. Gaodhal (or Gathelus), the son of Niul, and ancestor of Clan-na-Gael, that is, "the children or descendants of Gaodhal". In his youth this Gaodhal was stung in the neck by a serpent, and was immediately brought to Moses, who, laying his rod upon the wounded place, instantly cured him; whence followed the word "Glas" to be added to his named, as Gaodhal Glas (glas: Irish, green; Lat. glaucus; Gr. glaukos), on account of the green scar which the word signifies, and which, during his life, remained on his neck after the wound was healed. And Gaodhal obtained a further blessing, namely-that no venomous beast can live any time where his posterity should inhabit; which is verified in Creta or Candia, Gothia or Getulia, Ireland, etc. The Irish chroniclers affirm that from this time Gaodhal and his posterity did paint the figures of Beasts, Birds, etc., on their banners and shields, to distinguish their tribes and septs, in imitation of the Israelites; and that a "Thunderbolt" was the cognisance in their chief standard for many generations after this Gaodhal.

17. Asruth, after his father's death, continued in Egypt and governed his colony in peace during his life.

18. Sruth, soon after his father's death, was set upon by the Egyptians, on account of their former animosities towards their predecessors for having taken part with the Israelites against them; which animosities until then lay raked up in the embers, and now broke out in a flame to that degree, that after many battles and conflicts wherein most of his colony lost their live, Sruth was forced with the few remaining to depart the country; and, after many traverses at sea, arrived at the Island of Creta (now called Candia), where he paid his last tribute to nature.

19. Heber Scut (scut: Irish, a Scot), after his father's death and a year's stay in Creta, departed thence, leaving some of his people to inhabit the Island, where some of their posterity likely still remain; "because the Island breeds no venomous serpent ever since." He and his people soon after arrived in Scythia; where his cousins, the posterity of Nenuall (eldest son of Fenius Farsa, above mentioned), refusing to allot a place of habitation form him and his colony, they fought many battles wherein Heber (with the assistance of some of the natives who were ill-affected towards their king), being always victor, he at length forced the sovereignty from the other, and settled himself and his colony in Scythia, who continued there for four generations. (Hence the epithet Scut, "a Scot" or "a Scythian," was applied to this Heber, who was accordingly called Heber Scot.) Heber Scot was afterwards slain in battle by Noemus the former king's son.

20. Baouman;

21 Ogaman; and

22. Tait, were each kings of Scythia, but in constant war with the natives; so that after Tait's death his son,

23. Agnon and his followers betook themselves to sea, wandering and coasting upon the Caspian Sean for several (some say seven) years in which time he died.

24. Lamhfionn and his fleet remained at sea for some time, after his father's death, resting and refreshing themselves upon such islands as they met with. It was then the Cachear, their magician or Druid, foretold that there would be no end of their peregrinations and travel until they should arrive at the Western Island of Europe, now called Ireland, which was the place destined for their future and lasting abode and settlement; and that not they but their posterity after three hundred years should arrive there. After many traverses of fortune at sea, this little fleet with their leader arrived at last and landed at Gothia or Geulia-more recently called Lybia, where Carthage was afterwards built; and, soon after, Lamhfionn died there.

25. Heber Glunfionn was born in Gothia, where he died. His posterity continued there to the eighth generation; and were kings or chief rulers there for one hundred and fifty years-some say three hundred years.

26 Agnan Fionn;

27. Febric Glas;

28. Nenuall;

29. Nuadhad;

30. Alladh;

31. Arcadh; and

32. Deag: of these nothing remarkable is mentioned, but that they lived and died kings in Gothia or Getulia.

33. Brath was born in Gothia. Remembering the Druid's prediction, and his people having considerably multiplied during their abode in Geulia, he departed thence with a numerous fleet to seek out the country destined for their final settlement, by the prophecy of Cachear, the Druid above mentioned; and, after some time, he landed upon the coast of Spain, and by strong hand settled himself and his colony in Galicia, in the north of that country.

34. Breoghan (or Brigus) was king of Galicia, Andalusia, Murcia, Castile, and Portugal-all of which he conquered. He built Breoghan's Tower or Brigantia in Galicia, and the city of Brigantia or Braganza in Portugal-called after him; and the kingdom of Castile was then also called after him Brigia. It is considered that "Castile" itself was so called from the figure of a castle which Brigus bore for his Arms on his banner. Brigus sent a colony into Britain, who settled in that territory now known as the counties of York, Lancaster, Durham, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, and, after him were called Brigantes; whose posterity gave formidable opposition to the Romans, at the time of the Roman invasion of Britain.

35. Bilé; was king of those countries after his father's death; and his son Galamh [galav] or Milesius succeeded him. This Bilé had a brother named Ithe.

36. Milesius, in his youth and in his father's life-time, went into Scythia, where he was kindly received by the king of that country, who gave him his daughter in marriage, and appointed him General of his forces. In this capacity Milesius defeated the king's enemies, gained much fame, and the love of all the king's subjects. His growing greatness and popularity excited against him the jealousy of the king; who, fearing the worst, resolved on privately dispatching Milesius our of the way, for, openly, he dare not attempt it. Admonished of the king's intentions in his regard, Milesius slew him; and thereupon quitted Scythia and retired into Egypt with a fleet of sixty sail. Pharaoh Nectonibus, then king of Egypt, being informed of his arrival and of his great valour, wisdom, and conduct in arms, made him General of all his forces against the king of Ethiopia then invading his country. Here, as in Scythia, Milesius was victorious; he forced the enemy to submit to the conqueror's own terms of peace. By these exploits Milesius found great favour with Pharaoh, who gave him, being then a widower, his daughter Scota in marriage; and kept him eight years afterwards in Egypt. During the sojourn of Milesius in Egypt, he employed the most ingenious and able persons among his people to be instructed in the several trades, arts, and sciences used in Egypt; in order to have them taught to the rest of his people on his return to Spain. [The original name of Milesius of Spain was "Galamh" (gall: Irish, a stranger; amh, a negative affix), which means, no stranger: meaning that he was no stranger in Egypt, where he was called "Milethea Spaine," which was afterwards contracted to "Miló Spaine" (meaning the Spanish Hero), and finally to "Milesiius" (mileadh: Irish, a hero; Lat. miles, a soldier).] At length Milesius took leave of his father-in-law, and steered towards Spain; where he arrived to the great joy and comfort of his people; who were much harassed by the rebellion of the natives and by the intrusion of other foreign nations that forced in after his father's death, and during his own long absence from Spain. With these and those he often met; and, in fifty-four battles, victoriously fought, he routed, destroyed, and totally extirpated them out of the country, which he settled in peace and quietness. In his reign a great dearth and famine occurred in Spain, of twenty-six years' continuance, occasioned, as well by reason of the former troubles which hindered the people from cultivating, and manuring the ground, as for want of rain to moisten the earth - but Milesius superstitiously believed the famine to have fallen upon him and his people as a judgment and punishment from their gods, for their negligence in seeking out the country destined for their final abode, so long before foretold by Cachear their Druid or magician, as already mentioned - the time limited by the prophecy for the accomplishment thereof being now nearly, if not fully, expired. To expiate his fault and to comply with the will of his gods, Milesius, with the general approbation of his people, sent his uncle Ithe, with his son Lughaidh [Luy], and one hundred and fifty stout men to bring them an account of those western islands; who, accordingly, arriving at the island since then called Ireland, and landing in that part of it now called Munster, left his son with fifty of his men to guard the ship, and with the rest travelled about the island. Informed, among other things, that the three sons of Cearmad, called Mac-Cuill, MacCeacht, and MacGreine, did then and for thirty years before rule and govern the island, each for one year, in his turn; and that the country was called after the names of their three queens - Eire, Fodhla, and Banbha, respectively: one year called "Eire," the next "Fodhla," and the next "Banbha," as their husbands reigned in their regular turns; by which names the island is ever since indifferently called, but most commonly "Eire," because that MacCuill, the husband of Eire, ruled and governed the country in his turn the year that the Clan-na-Milé (or the sons of Milesius) arrived in and conquered Ireland. And being further informed that the three brothers were then at their palace at Aileach Neid, in the north part of the country, engaged in the settlement of some disputes concerning their family jewels, Ithe directed his course thither; sending orders to his son to sail about with his ship and the rest of his men, and meet him there. When Ithe arrived where the (Danann) brothers were, be was honourably received and entertained by them; and, finding him to be a mail of great wisdom. and knowledge, they referred their disputes to him for decision. That decision having met their entire satisfaction, Ithe exhorted them to mutual love, peace, and forbearance; adding much in praise of their delightful, pleasant, and fruitful country; and then took his leave, to return to his ship, and go back to Spain. No sooner was he gone than the brothers; began to reflect on the high commendations which Ithe gave of the Island; and, suspecting his design of bringing others to invade it, resolved to prevent them, and therefore pursued him with a strong party, overtook him, fought and routed his men and wounded himself to death (before his son or the rest of his men left on ship-board could come to his rescue) at a place called, from that fight and his name, Magh Ithe or "The plain of Ithe" (an extensive plain in the barony of Raphoe, county Donegal); whence his son, having found him in that condition, brought his dead and mangled body back into Spain, and there exposed it to public view, thereby to excite his friends and relations to avenge his murder. [Note: that all the invaders and planters of Ireland, namely, Parthalonians, Neimhedh, the Firbolgs, Tuatha-de-Danann, and Clan-na-Milé, where originally Scythians, of the line of Japbet, who had the language called Bearla-Tobbai or Gaoidhilg [Gaelic] common amongst them all; and consequently not to be wondered at, that Ithe and the Tuatha-de-Danann understood one another without an Interpreter - both speaking the same language, though perhaps with some difference in the accent]. The exposing of the dead body of Ithe had the desired effect; for, thereupon, Milesius made great preparations in order to invade Ireland - as well to avenge his uncle's death, as also in obedience to the will of his gods, signified by the prophecy of Cachear, aforesaid. But, before he could effect that object, he died, leaving the care, and charge of that expedition upon his eight legitimate sons by his two wives before mentioned. Milesius was a very valiant champion, a great warrior, and fortunate and prosperous in all his undertakings: witness his name of "Milesius," given him from the many battles (some say a thousand, which the word "Milé" signifies in Irish as well as in Latin) which he victoriously fought and won, as well in Spain, as in all the other countries and kingdoms be traversed in his younger days. The eight brothers were neither forgetful nor negligent in the execution of their father's command; but, soon after his death, with a numerous fleet well manned and equipped, set forth from Breoghan's Tower or Brigantia (now Corunna) in Galicia, in Spain, and sailed prosperously to the coasts of Ireland or lnis-Fail, where they met many difficulties and various chances before they could land: occasioned by the diabolical arts, sorceries, and enchantments used by the Tuatha-de-Danann, to obstruct their landing; for, by their magic art, they enchanted the island so as to appear to the Milesians or Clan-na-Milé in the form of a Hog, and no way to come at it (whence the island, among the many other names it had before, was called "Muc-Inis or "The Hog Island"); and withal raised so great a storm, that the Milesian fleet was thereby totally dispersed and many of them cast away, wherein five of the eight brothers, sons of Milesius, lost their lives. That part of the fleet commanded by Heber, Heremon, and Amergin (the three surviving, brothers), and Heber Donn, son of Ir (one of the brothers lost in the storm), overcame all opposition, landed safe, fought and routed the three Tuatha-de Danann Kings at Slieve-Mis, and thence pursued and overtook them at Tailten, where another bloody battle was fought; wherein the three (Tuatha-de-Danann) Kings and their Queens were slain, and their army utterly routed and destroyed: so that they could never after give any opposition to the Clan-na-Milé in their new conquest; who, having thus sufficiently avenged the death of their great uncle Ithe, gained the possession of the country foretold them by Cachear, some ages past, as already mentioned. Heber and Heremon, the chief leading men remaining of the eight brothers, sons of Milesius aforesaid, divided the kingdom between them (allotting a proportion of land to their brother Amergin, who was their Arch-priest, Druid, or magician; and to their nephew Heber Donn, and to the rest of their chief commanders), and became jointly the first of one hundred and eighty-three Kings or sole Monarchs of the Gaelic, Milesian, or Scottish Race, that ruled and governed Ireland, successively, for two thousand eight hundred and eighty-five years from the first year of their reign), Anno Mundi three thousand five hundred, to their submission to the Crown of England in the person of King Henry the Second; who, being also of the Milesian Race by Maude, his mother, was lineally descended from Fergus Mór MacEarca, first King of Scotland, who was descended from the said Heremon - so that the succession may be truly said to continue in the Milesian Blood from before Christ one thousand six hundred and ninety-nine years down to the present time. Heber and Heremon reigned jointly one year only, when, upon a difference between their ambitious wives, they quarrelled and fought a battle at Ardeath or Geshill (Geashill, near Tullamore in the King's County), where Heber was slain by Heremon; and, soon after, Amergin, who claimed an equal share in the government, was, in another battle fought between them, likewise slain by Heremon. Thus, Heremon became sole Monarch, and made a new division of the land amongst his comrades and friends, viz.: the south part, now called Munster, he gave to his brother Heber's four sons, Er, Orba, Feron, and Fergna; the north part, now Ulster, he gave to Ir's only son Heber Donn; the east part or Coigeadh, Galian, now called Leinster, be gave to Criomthann-sciath-bheil, one of his commanders; and the west part, now called Connaught, Heremon gave to Un-Mac-Oigge, another of his commanders; allotting a part of Munster to Lughaidh (the son of Ithe, the first Milesian discoverer of Ireland), amongst his brother Heber's sons. From these three brothers, Heber, Ir, and Heremon (Amergin dying without issue), are descended all the Milesian Irish of Ireland and Scotland, viz.: from Heber, the eldest brother, the provincial Kings of Munster (of whom thirty-eight were sole Monarchs of Ireland), and most of the nobility and gentry of Munster, and many noble families in Scotland, are descended. From Ir, the second brother, all the provincial Kings of Ulster (of whom twenty-six were sole Monarchs of Ireland), and all the ancient nobility and gentry of Ulster, and many noble families in Leinster, Munster, and Connaught, derive their pedigrees; and, in Scotland, the Clan-na-Rory - the descendants of an eminent man, named Ruadhri or Roderick, who was Monarch of Ireland for seventy years (viz., from Before Christ 288 to 218). From Heremon, the youngest of the three brothers, were descended one hundred and fourteen sole Monarchs of Ireland: the provincial Kings and Hermonian nobility and gentry of Leinster, Connaught, Meath, Orgiall, Tirowen, Tirconnell, and Clan-na-boy; the Kings of Dalriada; all the Kings of Scotland from Fergus Mór MacEarea, down to the Stuarts; and the Kings and Queens of England from Henry the Second down to tile present time. The issue of Ithe is not accounted among the Milesian Irish or Clan-na-Milé, as not being descended from Milesius, but from his uncle Ithe; of whose posterity there were also some Monarchs of Ireland (see Roll of the Irish Monarchs, infra), and many provincial or half provincial Kings of Munster: that country upon its first division being allocated to the sons of Heber and to Lughaidh, son of Ithe, whose posterity continued there accordingly. This invasion, conquest, or plantation of Ireland by the Milesian or Scottish Nation took place in the Year of the World three thousand Ova hundred, or the next year after Solomon began the foundation of the Temple of Jerusalem, and one thousand six hundred and ninety-nine years before the Nativity of our Saviour Jesus Christ; which, according to the Irish computation of Time, occurred Anno Mundi five thousand one hundred and ninety-nine: therein agreeing with the Septuagint, Roman Martyrologies, Eusebius, Orosius, and other ancient authors; which computation the ancient Irish chroniclers exactly observed in their Books of the Reigns of the Monarchs of Ireland, and other Antiquities of that Kingdom ; out of which the Roll of the Monarchs of Ireland, from the beginning of the Milesian Monarchy to their submission to King Henry the Second of England, a Prince of their own Blood, is exactly collected. [As the Milesian invasion of Ireland took place the next year after the laying of the foundation of the Temple of Jerusalem by Solomon, King of Israel, we may infer that Solomon was contemporary with Milesius of Spain; and that the Pharaoh King of Egypt, who (1 Kings iii. 1,) gave his daughter in marriage to Solomon, was the Pharaoh who conferred on Milesius of Spain the hand of another daughter Scota.] Milesius of Spain bore three Lions in his shield and standard, for the following reasons; namely, that, in his travels in his younger days into foreign countries, passing through Africa, he, by his cunning and valour, killed in one morning three Lions; and that, in memory of so noble and valiant an exploit, he always after bore three Lions on his shield, which his two surviving sons Heber and Heremon, and his grandson Heber Donn, son of Ir, after their conquest of Ireland, divided amongst them, as well as they did the country: each of them. bearing a Lion in his shield and banner, but of different colours; which the Chiefs of their posterity continue to this day: some with additions and differences; others plain and entire as they had it from their ancestors.

37. Heremon: his son. He and his eldest brother Heber were, jointly, the first Milesian Monarchs of Ireland; they began to reign, A.M. 3,500, or, Before Christ, 1699. After Heber was slain, B.C. 1698, Heremon reigned singly for fourteen years; during which time a certain colony called by the Irish Cruithneaigh, in English "Cruthneans" or Picts, arrived in Ireland and requested Heremon to assign them a part of the country to settle in, which he refused; but, giving them as wives the widows of the Tuatha-de-Danans, slain in battle, he sent them with a strong party of his own forces to conquer the country then called "Alba," but now Scotland; conditionally, that they and their posterity should be tributary to the Monarchs of Ireland. Heremon died, B.C. 1683, and was succeeded by three of his four sons, named Muimne, Luigne, and Laighean, who reigned jointly for three years, and were slain by their Heberian successors.

38. Irial Faidh ("faidh": Irish, a prophet): his son; was the 10th Monarch of Ireland; died B.C. 1670. This was a very learned King; could foretell things to come; and caused much of the country to be cleared of the ancient forests. He likewise built seven royal palaces, viz., Rath Ciombaoith, Rath Coincheada, Rath Mothuig, Rath Buirioch, Rath Luachat, Rath Croicne, and Rath Boachoill. He won four remarkable battles over his enemies: - Ard Inmath, at Teabtha, where Stirne, the son of Dubh, son of Fomhar, was slain; the second battle was at Teanmhuighe, against the Fomhoraice, where Eichtghe, their leader, was slain; the third was the battle of Loch Muighe, where Lugrot, the son of Moghfeibhis, was slain; and the fourth was the battle of Cuill Martho, where the four sons of Heber were defeated. Irial died in the second year after this battle, having reigned 10 years, and was buried at Magh Muagh.

39. Eithrial: his son; was the 11th Monarch; reigned 20 years; and was slain by Conmaol, the son of Heber Fionn, at the battle of Soirrean, in Leinster, B.C. 1650.

This also was a learned King, he wrote with his own hand the History of the Gaels (or Gadelians); in his reign seven large woods were cleared and much advance made in the practice of agriculture.

40. Foll-Aich: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by Conmaol, the slayer of his father, who usurped his place.

41. Tigernmas: his son; was the 13th Monarch, and reigned 77 years; according to Keating, he reigned but 50 years; he fought twenty-seven battles with the followers of the family of Heber Fionn, all which he gained. In his reign gold was mined near the Liffey, and skilfully worked by Inchadhan. This King also made a law that each grade of society should be known by the number of colours in its wearing apparel: - the clothes of a slave should be of one colour; those of a soldier of two; the dress of a commanding officer to be of three colours; a gentleman's dress, who kept a table for the free entertainment of strangers, to be of four colours; five colours to be allowed to the nobility (the chiefs); and the King, Queen, and Royal Family, as well as the Druids, historians, and other learned men to wear six colours.

This King died, B.C. 1543, on the Eve of 1st of November, with two-thirds of the people of Ireland, at Magh Sleaght (or Field of Adoration), in the county of Leitrim, as he was adoring the Sun-God, Crom Cruach (a quo Macroom).

Historians say this Monarch was the first who introduced image worship in Ireland.

42. Enboath: his son. It was in this prince's lifetime that the Kingdom was divided in two parts by a line drawn from Drogheda to Limerick.

43. Smiomghall: his son; in his lifetime the Picts in Scotland were forced to abide by their oath, and pay homage to the Irish Monarch; seven large woods were also cut down.

44. Fiacha Labhrainn: his son; was the 18th Monarch; reigned 24 years; slew Eochaidh Faobharglas, of the line of Heber, at the battle of Carman. During his reign all the inhabitants of Scotland were brought in subjection to the Irish Monarchy, and the conquest was secured by his son the 20th Monarch. Fiacha at length (B.C. 1448) fell in the battle of Bealgadain, by the hands of Eochaidh Mumho, the son of Moefeibhis, of the race of Heber Fionn.

45. Aongus Olmucach: his son; was the 20th Monarch; in his reign the Picts again refused to pay the tribute imposed on them 250 years before, by Heremon, but this Monarch went with a strong army into Alba and in thirty pitched battles overcame them and forced them to pay the required tribute.

Aongus was at length slain by Eana, in the battle of Carman, B.C. 1409.

46. Main: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by Eadna, of the line of Heber Fionn. In his time silver shields were given as rewards for bravery to the Irish militia.

47. Rotheachtach: his son; was the 22nd Monarch; slain, B.C. 1357, by Sedne (or Seadhna), of the Line of Ir.

48. Dein: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by his father's slayer, and his son. In his time gentlemen and noblemen first wore gold chains round their necks, as a sign of their birth; and golden helmets were given to brave soldiers,

49. Siorna "Saoghalach" (long-oevus): his son; was the 34th Monarch; he obtained the name "Saoghalach" on account of his extraordinary long life; slain, B.C 1030, at Aillin, by Rotheachta, of the line of Heber Fionn, who usurped the Monarchy, thereby excluding from the throne -

50. Olioll Aolcheoin: son of Siorna Saoghalach.

51. Gialchadh: his son; was the 37th Monarch; killed by Art Imleach, of the Line of Heber Fionn, at Moighe Muadh, B.C. 1013.

52. Nuadhas Fionnfail: his son; was the 39th Monarch; slain by Breasrioghacta, his successor, B.C. 961.

53. Aedan Glas: his son. In his time the coast was infested with pirates; and there occurred a dreadful plague (Apthach) which swept away most of the inhabitants.

54. Simeon Breac: his son; was the 44th Monarch; he inhumanly caused his predecessor to be torn asunder; but, after a reign of six years, he met with a like death, by order of Duach Fionn, son to the murdered King, B.C. 903.

55. Muredach Bolgach: his son; was the 46th Monarch; killed by Eadhna Dearg, B.C. 892; he had two sons - Duach Teamhrach, and Fiacha.

56. Fiacha Tolgrach: son of Muredach; was the 55th Monarch. His brother Duach had two sons, Eochaidh Framhuine and Conang Beag-eaglach, who were the 51st and 53rd Monarchs of Ireland.

Fiacha's life was ended by the sword of Oilioll Fionn, of the Line of Heber Fionn, B.C. 795.

57. Duach Ladhrach: his son; was the 59th Monarch; killed by Lughaidh Laighe, son of Oilioll Fionn, B.C. 737.

58. Eochaidh Buadhach: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by his father's slayer. In his time the kingdom was twice visited with a plague.

59. Ugaine Mór: his son. This Ugaine (or Hugony) the Great was the 66th Monarch of Ireland. Was called Mór on account of his extensive dominions, - being sovereign of all the Islands of Western Europe. Was married to Cæsair, daughter to the King of France, and by her had issue - twenty-two sons and three daughters. In order to prevent these children encroaching on each other he divided the Kingdom into twenty-five portions, allotting to each his (or her) distinct inheritance. By means of this division the taxes of the country were collected during the succeeding 300 years. All the sons died without issue except two, viz: - Laeghaire Lorc, ancestor of all the Leinster Heremonians; and Cobthach Caolbhreagh, from whom the Heremonians of Leath Cuinn, viz., Meath, Ulster, and Conacht derive their pedigree.

Ugaine was at length, B.C. 593, slain by Badhbhchadh, who failed to secure the fruits of his murder - the Irish Throne, as he was executed by order of Laeghaire Lorc, the murdered Monarch's son, who became the 68th Monarch.

60. Colethach Caol-bhreagh: son of Ugaine Mór; was the 69th Monarch; it is said, that, to secure the Throne, he assassinated his brother Laeghaire; after a long reign he was at length slain by Maion, his nephew, B.C. 541.

61. Melg Molbhthach: his son; was the 71st Monarch; was slain by Modhchorb, son of Cobhthach Caomh, of the Line of Heber Fionn, B.C. 541.

62. Iaran Gleofathach: his son; was the 74th Monarch; was a King of great justice and wisdom very well learned and possessed of many accomplishments; slain by Fear-Chorb, son of Modh-Chorb, B.C. 473.

63. Conla Caomh: his son; was the 74th Monarch of Ireland; died a natural death, B.C. 442.

64. Olioll Cas-fiachlach: his son; was the 77th Monarch; slain by his successor, Adhamhar Foltchaion, B.C. 417.

65. Eochaidh Alt-Leathan: his son; was the 79th Monarch; slain by Feargus Fortamhail, his successor, B.C. 395.

66. Aongus (or Æneas) Tuirmeach-Teamrach: his son; was the 81st Monarch; his son, Fiacha Firmara (so called from being exposed in a small boat on the sea) was ancestor of the Kings of Dalriada and Argyle in Scotland. This Aongus was slain at Tara (Teamhrach), B.C. 324.

67. Enna Aigneach: the legitimate son of Aongus; was the 84th Monarch; was of a very bountiful disposition, and exceedingly munificent in his donations. This King lost his life by the hands of Criomthan Cosgrach, B.C. 292.

68. Assaman Eamhna: his son; was excluded from the Throne by his father's murderer.

69. Roighen Ruadh: his son; in his time most of the cattle in Ireland died of murrain.

70. Fionnlogh: his son.

71. Fionn: his son; m. Benia, daughter of Criomthan; had two sons.

72. Eochaidh Feidlioch: his son; was the 93rd Monarch; m Clothfionn, daughter of Eochaidh Uchtleathan, who was a very virtuous lady. By him she had three children at a birth - Breas, Nar, and Lothar (the Fineamhas), who were slain at the battle of Dromchriadh; after their death, a melancholy settled on the Monarch, hence his name "Feidhlioch."

This Monarch caused the division of the Kingdom by Ugaine Mór into twenty-five parts, to cease; and ordered that the ancient Firvolgian division into Provinces should be resumed, viz., Two Munsters, Leinster, Conacht, and Ulster.

He also divided the government of these Provinces amongst his favourite courtiers: - Conacht he divided into three parts between Fiodhach, Eochaidh Allat, and Tinne, son of Conragh, son of Ruadhri Mór, No 62 on the "Line of Ir;" Ulster (Uladh) he gave to Feargus, the son of Leighe; Leinster he gave to Ros, the son of Feargus Fairge; and the two Munsters he gave to Tighernach Teadhbheamach and Deagbadah.

After this division of the Kingdom, Eochaidh proceeded to erect a Royal Palace in Conacht; this he built on Tinne's government in a place called Druin-na-n Druagh, now Craughan (from Craughan Crodhearg, Maedhbh's mother, to whom she gave the palace), but previously, Rath Eochaidh. About the same time he bestowed his daughter the Princess Maedhbh on Tinne, whom he constituted King of Conacht; Maedhbh being hereditary Queen of that Province.

After many years reign Tinne was slain by Maceacht (or Monaire) at Tara. After ten years' undivided reign, Queen Maedhbh married Oilioll Mór, son of Ros Ruadh, of Leinster, to whom she bore the seven Maine; Oilioll Mór was at length slain by Conall Cearnach, who was soon after killed by the people of Conacht. Maedhbh was at length slain by Ferbhuidhe, the son of Conor MacNeasa (Neasa was his mother); but in reality this Conor was the son of Fachtna Fathach, son of Cas, son of Ruadhri Mór, of the Line of Ir.

This Monarch, Eochaidh, died at Tara, B.C. 130.

73. Bress-Nar-Lothar: his son. In his time the Irish first dug graves beneath the surface to bury their dead; previously they laid the body on the surface and heaped stones over it. He had also been named Fineamhnas.

74. Lughaidh Sriabh-n Dearg: his son; was the 98th Monarch; he entered into an alliance with the King of Denmark, whose daughter, Dearborguill, he obtained as his wife; he killed himself by falling on his sword in the eighth year Before CHRIST.

75. Crimthann-Niadh-Nar: his son; who was the 100th Monarch of Ireland, and styled "The Heroic." It was in this Monarch's reign that our Lord and Saviour JESUS CHRIST was born.

Crimthann's death was occasioned by a fall from his horse, B.C. 9. Was married to Nar-Tath-Chaoch, daughter of Laoch, son of Daire, who lived in the land of the Picts (Scotland).

76. Feredach Fionn-Feachtnach: his son; was the 102nd Monarch. The epithet "feachtnach" was applied to this Monarch because of his truth and sincerity. In his reign lived Moran, the son of Maom, a celebrated Brehon, or Chief Justice of the Kingdom; it is said that he was the first who wore the wonderful collar called Iodhain Morain; this collar possessed a wonderful property: - if the judge who wore it attempted to pass a false judgment it would immediately contract, so as nearly to stop his breathing; but if he reversed such false sentence the collar would at once enlarge itself, and hang loose around his neck. This collar was also caused to be worn by those who acted as witnesses, so as to test the accuracy of their evidence. This Monarch, Feredach, died a natural death at the regal city at Tara, A.D. 36.

77. Fiacha Fionn Ola: his son; was the 104th Monarch; reigned 17 years, and was (A.D. 56) slain by Eiliomh MacConrach, of the Race of Ir, who succeeded him on the throne. This Fiacha was married to Eithne, daughter of the King of Alba; whither, being near her confinement at the death of her husband, she went, and was there delivered of a son, who was named Tuathal.

78. Tuathal Teachtmar: that son; was the 106th Monarch of Ireland. When Tuathal came of age, he got together his friends, and, with what aid his grandfather the king of Alba gave him, came into Ireland and fought and overcame his enemies in twenty-five battles in Ulster, twenty-five in Leinster, as many in Connaught, and thirty-five in Munster. And having thus restored the true royal blood and heirs to their respective provincial kingdoms, he thought fit to take, as he accordingly did with their consent, fron each of the four divisions or provinces Munster, Leinster, Connaught, and Ulster, a considerable tract of ground which was the next adjoining to Uisneach (where Tuathal had a palace): one east, another west, a third south, and a fourth on the north of it; and appointed all four (tracts of ground so taken from the four provinces) under the name of Midhe or "Meath" to belong for ever after to the Monarch's own peculiar demesne for the maintenance of his table; on each of which several portions he built a royal palace for himself and his heirs and successors; for every of which portions the Monarch ordained a certain chiefry or tribute to be yearly paid to the provincial Kings from whose provinces the said portions were taken, which may be seen at large in the Chronicles. It was this Monarch that imposed the great and insupportable fine (or "Eric") of 6,000 cows or beeves, as many fat muttons, (as many) hogs, 6,000 mantles, 6,000 ounces (or "Uinge") of silver, and 12,000 (others have it 6,000) cauldrons or pots of brass, to be paid every second year by the province of Leinster to the Monarchs of Ireland for ever, for the death of his only two daughters Fithir and Darina. (See Paper "Ancient Leinster Tributes," in the Appendix). This tribute was punctually taken and exacted, sometimes by fire and sword, during the reigns of forty Monarchs of Ireland upwards of six hundred years, until at last remitted by Finachta Fleadhach, the 153rd Monarch of Ireland, and the 26th Christian Monarch, at the request and earnest solicitation of St. Moling. At the end of thirty years' reign, the Monarch Tuathal was slain by his successor Mal, A.D. 106.

This Monarch erected Royal Palace at Tailtean; around the grave of Queen Tailte he caused the Fairs to be resumed on La Lughnasa (Lewy's Day), to which were brought all of the youth of both sexes of a suitable age to be married, at which Fair the marriage articles were agreed upon, and the ceremony performed.

Tuathal married Baine, the daughter of Sgaile Balbh, King of England.

79. Fedhlimidh (Felim) Rachtmar: his son; was so called as being a maker of excellent wholesome laws, among which he established with all firmness that of "Retaliation;" kept to it inviolably; and by that means preserved the people in peace, quiet, plenty, and security during his time. This Felim was the 108th Monarch; reigned nine years; and, after all his pomp and greatness, died of thirst, A.D. 119. He married Ughna, daughter of the King of Denmark.

80. Conn Ceadcathach (or Conn of the Hundred Battles); his son; This Conn was so called from hundreds of battles by him fought and won: viz., sixty battles against Cahir Mór, King of Leinster and the 109th Monarch of Ireland, whom he slew and succeeded in the Monarchy; one hundred battles against the Ulsterians; and one hundred more in Munster against Owen Mór (or Mogha Nua-Dhad), their King, who, notwithstanding, forced the said Conn to an equal division of the Kingdom with him. He had two brothers - 1. Eochaidh Fionn-Fohart, 2. Fiacha Suidhe, who, to make way for themselves, murdered two of their brother's sons named Conla Ruadh and Crionna; but they were by the third son Art Eanfhear banished, first into Leinster, and then into Munster, where they lived near Cashel. They were seated at Deici Teamhrach (now the barony of Desee in Meath), whence they were expelled by the Monarch Cormac Ulfhada, son of Art; and, after various wanderings, they went to Munster where Oilioll Olum, who was married to Sadhbh, daughter of Conn of the Hundred Battles, gave them a large district of the present county of Waterford, a part of which is still called Na-Deiseacha, or the baronies of Desies. They were also given the country comprised in the present baronies of Clonmel, Upper-Third, and Middle-Third, in the co. Tipperary, which they held till the Anglo-Norman Invasion. From Eochaidh Fionn-Fohart decended O'Nowlan or Nolan of Fowerty (or Foharta), in Lease (or Leix), and Saint Bridget; and from Fiacha Suidhe are O'Dolan, O'Brick of Dunbrick, and O'Faelan of Dun Faelan, near Cashel. Conn of the Hundred Battles had also three daughters: 1. Sadhbh, who m. first, MacNiadh, after whose death she m. Oilioll Olum, King of Munster. (See No. 84 on the "Line of Heber"); 2. Maoin; and 3. Sarah (or Sarad), m. to Conan MacMogha Laine. - (See No. 81. infra).

Conn reigned 35 years; but was at length barbarously slain by Tiobraidhe Tireach, son of Mal, son of Rochruidhe, King of Ulster. This murder was committed in Tara, A.D. 157, when Conn chanced to be alone and unattended by his guards; the assassins were fifty ruffians, disguised as women, whom the King of Ulster employed for the purpose.

81. Art Eanfhear ("art:" Irish, a bear, a stone; noble, great, generous; hardness, cruelty. "Ean:" Irish, one; "fhear," "ar," the man; Gr. "Ar," The Man, or God of War): son of Conn of the Hundred Fights; a quo O'h-Airt, anglicised O'Hart. This Art, who was the 112th Monarch of Ireland, had three sisters - one of whom Sarad was the wife of Conaire Mac Mogha Laine, the 111th Monarch, by whom she had three sons called the "Three Cairbres," viz. - 1. Cairbre (alias Eochaidh) Riada - a quo "Dalriada," in Ireland, and in Scotland; 2. Cairbre Bascaon; 3. Cairbre Musc, who was the ancestor of O'Falvey, lords of Corcaguiney, etc. Sabina (or Sadhbh), another sister, was the wife of MacNiadh [nia], half King of Munster (of the Sept of Lughaidh, son of Ithe), by whom she had a son named Maccon; and by her second husband Olioll Olum she had nine sons, seven whereof were slain by their half brother Maccon, in the famous battle of Magh Mucroimhe [muccrove], in the county of Galway, where also the Monarch Art himself fell, siding with his brother-in-law Olioll Olum against the said Maccon, after a reign of thirty years, A.D. 195. This Art was married to Maedhbh, Leathdearg, the daughter of Conann Cualann; from this Queen, Rath Maedhbhe, near Tara, obtained its name.

82. Cormac Ulfhada: son of Art Eanfhear; m. Eithne, daughter of Dunlang, King of Leinster; had three elder brothers - 1. Artghen, 2. Boindia, 3. Bonnrigh. He had also six sons - 1. Cairbre Lifeachar, 2. Muireadach, 3. Moghruith, 4. Ceallach, 5. Daire, 6. Aongus Fionn: Nos. 4 and 5 left no issue. King Cormac Mac Art was the 115th Monarch of Ireland; and was called "Ulfhada," because of his long beard. He was the wisest, most learned, and best of any of the Milesian race before him, that ruled the Kingdom. He ordained several good laws; wrote several learned treatises, among which his treatise on "Kingly Government," directed to his son Carbry Liffechar, is extant and extraordinary. He was very magnificent in his housekeeping and attendants, having always one thousand one hundred and fifty persons in his daily retinue constantly attending at his Great Hall at Tara; which was three hundred feet long, thirty cubits high, and fifty cubits broad, with fourteen doors to it. His daily service of plate, flagons, drinking cups of gold, silver., and precious stone, at his table, ordinarily consisted of one hundred and fifty pieces, besides dishes, etc., which were all pure silver or gold. He ordained that ten choice persons should constantly attend him and his successors - Monarchs of Ireland, and never to be absent from him, viz. - 1. A nobleman to be his companion; 2. A judge to deliver and explain the laws of the country in the King's presence upon all occasions; 3. An antiquary or historiographer to declare and preserve the genealogies, acts, and occurrences of the nobility and gentry from time to time as occasion required; 4. A Druid or Magician to offer sacrifice, and presage good or bad omens, as his learning, skill, or knowledge would enable him; 5. A poet to praise or dispraise every one according to his good or bad actions; 6. A physician to administer physic to the king and queen, and to the rest of the (royal) family; 7. A musician to compose music, and sing pleasant sonnets in the King's presence when there-unto disposed; and 8, 9, and 10, three Stewards to govern the King's House in all things appertaining thereunto. This custom was observed by all the succeeding Monarchs down to Brian Boromha [Boru], the 175th Monarch of Ireland, and the 60th down from Cormac, without any alteration only that since they received the Christian Faith they changed the Druid or Magician for a Prelate of the Church.

What is besides delivered from antiquity of this great Monarch is, that (which among the truly wise is more valuable than any worldly magnificence or secular glory whatsoever) he was to all mankind very just, and so upright in his actions, judgments, and laws, that God revealed unto him the light of His Faith seven years before his death; and from thenceforward he refused his Druids to worship their idol-gods, and openly professed he would no more worship any but the true God of the Universe, the Immortal and Invisible King of Ages. Whereupon the Druids sought his destruction, which they soon after effected (God permitting it) by their adjurations and ministry of damned spirits choking him as he sat at dinner eating of salmon, some say by a bone of the fish sticking in his throat, A.D. 266, after he had reigned forty years. Of the six sons of Cormac Mac Art, no issue is recorded from any [of them], but from Cairbre-Lifeachar; he had also ten daughters, but there is no account of any of them only two - namely, Grace (or Grania), and Ailbh [alve], who were both successively the wives of the great champion and general of the Irish Militia, Fionn, the son of Cubhall [Coole]. The mother of Cormac MacArt was Eachtach, the daughter of Ulcheatagh.

Cormac was married to Eithne Ollamhdha, daughter of Dunlang, son of Eana Niadh; she was fostered by Buiciodh Brughach, in Leinster.

83. Cairbre-Lifeachar, the 117th Monarch of Ireland: son of King Cormac Mac Art; was so called from his having been nursed by the side of the Liffey, the river on which Dublin is built. His mother was Eithne, daughter of Dunlong, King of Leinster. He had three sons - 1. Eochaidh Dubhlen; 2. Eocho; and 3. Fiacha Srabhteine, who was the 120th Monarch of Ireland, and the ancestor of O'Neill, Princes of Tyrone. Fiacha Srabhteine was so called, from his having been fostered at Dunsrabhteine, in Connaught; of which province he was King, before his elevation to the Monarchy. After seventeen years' reign, the Monarch Cairbre Lifeachar was slain at the battle of Gabhra [Gaura], A.D. 284, by Simeon, the son of Ceirb, who came from the south of Leinster to this battle, fought by the Militia of Ireland, who were called the Fiana Erionn (or Fenians), and arising from a quarrel which happened between the; in which the Monarch, taking part with one side against the other, lost his life.

84. Fiacha Srabhteine, King of Conacht, and the 120th Monarch of Ireland: son of Cairbre-Liffechar; married Aoife, daughter of the King of Gall Gaodhal. This Fiacha, after 37 years' reign, was, in the battleof Dubhcomar, A.D. 322, slain by his nephews, the Three Collas, to make room for Colla Uais, who seized on, and kept, the Monarchy for four years. From those three Collas the "Clan Colla" were so called.

85. Muireadach Tireach: son of Fiacha Srabhteine; m. Muirion, daughter of Fiachadh, King of Ulster; and having, in A.D. 326, fought and defeated Colla Uais, and banished him and his two brothers into Scotland, regained his father's Throne, which he kept as the 122nd Monarch for 30 years.

86. Eochaidh Muigh-Meadhoin [Moyvone]: his son; was the 124th Monarch; and in the 8th year of his reign died a natural death at Tara, A.D. 365; leaving issue four sons, viz., by his first wife Mong Fionn: - I. Brian; II. Fiachra; III. Olioll; IV. Fergus. And, by his second wife, Carthan Cais Dubh (or Carinna), daughter of the Celtic King of Britain, - V. Niall Mór, commonly called "Niall of the Nine Hostages." Mong Fionn was daughter of Fiodhach, and sister of Crimthann, King of Munster, of the Heberian Sept, and successor of Eochaidh in the Monarchy. This Crimthann was poisoned by his sister Mong-Fionn, in hopes that Brian, her eldest son by Eochaidh, would succeed in the Monarchy. To avoid suspicion she herself drank of the same poisoned cup which she presented to her brother; but, notwithstanding that she lost her life by so doing, yet her expectations were not realised, for the said Brian and her other three sons by the said Eochaidh were laid aside (whether out of horror of the mother's inhumanity in poisoning her brother, or otherwise, is not known), and the youngest son of Eochaidh, by Carthan Cais Dubh, was preferred to the Monarchy. I. Brian, from him were descended the Kings, nobility and gentry of Conacht - Tirloch Mór O'Connor, the 121st, and Roderic O'Connor, the 183rd Monarch of Ireland. II. Fiachra's descendants gave their name to Tir-Fiachra ("Tireragh"), co. Sligo, and possessed also parts of co. Mayo. III. Olioll's descendants settled in Sligo - in Tir Oliolla (or Tirerill). This Fiachra had five sons: - 1. Earc Cuilbhuide; 2. Breasal; 3. Conaire; 4. Feredach (or Dathi); and 5. Amhalgaidh.

87. Brian: eldest son of Eochaidh Muigh-Meadhoin [Moyvane], the 124th Monarch of Ireland. Brian was the eldest brother of Niall of the Nine Hostages and the first King of Connaught, of the Uí Niall Sept, and ancestor of O'Conchobhair, of Connaught; anglicised O'Connor, O'Conor, Connor, Conor, and Conyers.

88. Duach Galach: his youngest son; the first Christian King of Connaught. His brothers, who left any issue, were Conall Orison, ArcaDearg, and Aongus, etc.

89. Eoghan Sreibh: son of Duach; the fifth Christian King of that province.

90. Muireadach: his son.

91. Fergus: his son.

92. Feargna: son of Fergus. Had two sons - 1. Hugh Fionn; 2. Brunan, by some incorrectly written "Brennan." His brother Eochaidh Tiormach was ancestor of O'Connor of Connacht. Another brother, Duach-Teang-Umh, who was the ancestor of O'Flaherty, and MacHugh (of Connaught), etc.

93. Hugh Fionn: son of Feargna.

94. Scanlan: his son.

95. Crimhthann: his son.

96. Felim: his son.

97. Blamhach: his son.

98. Baothan: his son.

99. Donchadh: his son.

100. Dubhdara: his son.

101. Cobthach (by some called Carnachan): his son.

102. Maolmordha or Myles: son of Cobthach, was the ancestor of O'Ragheallaigh, or O'Radheollaigh; anglicised O'Rahilly, O'Reilly, O'Rielly, Rahilly, Raleigh, Reyley, Rielly, Riley, Radley, Ridley, Ryley, and Reillé. His brother Aodh (or Hugh) was ancestor of O'Rourke

103. Dubhcron: his son.

104. Cathalan: his son.

105. Ragheallach ("ragh:" Irish, a race; "eallach," gregarious): his son; slain at the Battle of Clontarf, 1014; a quo O'Ragheallaigh.

106. Artan: his son.

107. Artgal: his son.

108. Connachtach: his son; died 1089.

109. Macnahoidhche ("oidhche:" Irish, the night): his son; a quo Mac-na-Hoidche, anglicised MacNight, Night, and McNeight; killed 1127.

110. Gothfrith [godfrey]: his son; killed, 1161.

111. Charles: his son; died 1196. Had a younger brother named Feargal.

112. Annadh [annay]: his son; was the last King*** of East Brefney; died 1220. Had two sons - 1. Charles; 2. Fergus (also called Feargal).

113. Charles, lord of Lower Brefney: son of Annadh; was killed at the battle of Moysleaghta, A.D. 1256; had a brother named Farrell Reilly, who was the ancestor of "Clann Goffrey."

114. Donal: son of Charles: also killed at the said battle of Moysleaghta, in 1256; had a brother named Neal Caoch, who was the ancestor of Brady.

115. Giollaiosa: his son; lord of Lower Brefney; built the Abbey of Cavan; had two brothers; died in 1330.

116. Philip, lord of Lower Brefney: his son; died in 1384.

117. John, lord of Lower Brefney: his son; died in 1402.

118. Owen na Feasog, lord of Lower Brefney: his son; died 1449. According to some genealogists this Owen na Feasog ("feasog," gen. "feasoige:" Irish, a beard) was the ancestor of Vesey and Vosey.

119. Charles, lord of Lower Brefney: his son; died 1467.

120. John, lord of Lower Brefney: his son; died 1510.

121. Myles, lord of Lower Brefney: his son; died 1565.

122. Hugh Conallach, lord of Lower Brefney: his son; died 1583.

123. John Ruadh [roe]: his son. According to some records this John, in June, in 1596, resigned the chieftaincy to his brother Philip, who died in 1601; but, according to others that brother's name was Edmond, of Kilnacrott, the last "O'Reilly" of the county Cavan, who was elected chief in 1585, and who was wounded in the wars against Queen Elizabeth; of which wounds he died in May, 1601, and was buried in the Monastery of the Franciscan Friars at Cavan. John Ruadh had a brother Mulmore (or Myles), whose Funeral Entry in Ulster's Office is dated A.D. 1636.

124. Hugh, Lord of Lower Brefney: son of John Ruadh.

125. Myles: his son.

126. Colonel Edmond Buidhe [boy]: his son; resumed the title "O'Reilly;" died in France in 1693; had a brother named Hugh, who was a Captain in France, in 1711.

127. Connell O'Reilly: his son; had a brother named Owen, who was Chief of his name; both living in France in 1711.


Pedigree of O'Reilly of Scarva, County Down descended from 122 (above) Hugh Conallach, lord of Lower Brefney

123. Edmond, the last "O'Reilly;" lived at Kilnacrott, where he built a large castle; was twice married: first to Mary Plunket, daughter of Lord Dunsany, and secondly to Elizabeth Nugent, dau. of Thomas Lord Delvin.

By the first marriage this Edmond had three sons -

by the second marriage, three sons -

This Edmond died in 1601; was attainted after his death by an Act of Parliament, in the eleventh year of the reign of King James I.; and his estates forfeited to the Crown.

124. Terence: third son of Edmond, by the first marriage; had two sons-1. Brian, 2. John.

125. Brian: elder son of Terence; had two sons-1. John, of Belfast, 2. Miles, who was a Captain.

126. John, of Belfast: son of Brian.

127. Miles of Lurgan: his son. This Miles had five sons - 1. John, 2. James, 3. Charles, 4. Marlow, 5. another John.

128. John: the fifth son of Miles; married in 1738, Lucy Savage, by whom he had two sons - 1. Daniel, who died young, and 2. John.

129. John, M.P. for Blessington: second son of John; married Jane Lushington, by whom he had three sons - 1. John-Lushington, 2. William-Edmond, 3. James-Myles.

130. John-Lushington Reilly, son of John; married Louisa Temple, by whom he had five sons, whose names - except the eldest - we have not yet ascertained.

131. John Temple Reilly, D.L., Scarva-House, Scarva, co. Down: son of John-Lushington Roilly; living in 1878.


Pedigree of O'Reilly of Heath House, Queen's County descended from 123 (above) Edmond, the last "O'Reilly;"

124. Myles O'Reilly, "The Slasher:" son of Edmond, of Kilnacrott, who was the last "Prince of Brefney."

125. Colonel John Reilly: son of Myles: omitted the prefix O'; raised at his own expense for the service of King James II., a regiment called "Reilly's Dragoons," at the head of which he fought at Derry, Belturbet, the Boyne, Aughrim, and Limerick, but saved his property from confiscation by being included in the Articles of the Treaty of Limerick. He married Margaret, daughter of Owen O'Reilly, Esq., by whom he had five sons and two daughters, some of whom died without issue. He died on the 17th Feb., 1717, and was buried in the old churchyard of Kill, parish of Crossarlough, county Cavan, where, in 1836, his tomb was in good preservation. His surviving children were:

126. Bryan O'Reilly: third son of Colonel John Reilly; had six sons, all of whom except the eldest died without issue

127. Myles: the eldest son of Bryan; had three sons:

128. Dowell O'Reilly: eldest son of Myles; was the first of the family that conformed to the late Established Church in Ireland.

129. Myles John O'Reilly, of Heath House, Queen's County: son of Dowell.

130. Myles George O'Reilly: son of Myles John; representative of Colonel John Reilly; living in 1861.